Thursday, October 31, 2019

Champagne Scholarship letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Champagne letter - Scholarship Essay Example Department of Education regulations. I want to pursue my program of study at ITT and maintain my satisfactory academic progress. This scholarship will allow me to prepare myself and obtain a job in my area of specialization. My goal is to complete the remaining two years of my course work at ITT. My objective is to become part of the motorsports industry as a sales representative, a problem solver, and develop designs to attract more people to the automobile industry. I have worked in the motorcycle racing industry and I have also raced with various sponsors. I have won many awards and I want to excel in this area as well. I am familiar with all of the aspects of automobiles and as a Pro Racer I have the ability to work independently and as a team member. Due to my discipline, I am able to deliver tasks on time. I hope that the Champagne Scholarship Committee gives me the opportunity to further my education and pursue my goal and objectives, given my track record of success in these areas that I have become involved with, this will be another successful achievement.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Improving the processes of patient care to improve outcomes Essay Example for Free

Improving the processes of patient care to improve outcomes Essay Improving the processes of patient care to improve outcomes is fundamental to quality patient care and requires skills in change management. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 3). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. The term innovation, rather than change, is often used to gain attention and infer that something new and special is happening. One of Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 4). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. the reasons there are significant variations in the descriptions of change and innovation can be attributed to the various underlying assumptions about the environment and the nature of change. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 4). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Linear change does not recognize the multiple, unanticipated human actions and communications that occur and the dynamic context in which the change is occurring. As a consequence, the linear perspective often becomes rigid, control driven, frustrating, and unsuccessful. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 5). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. The world is in continual motion, and movement occurs in more than linear ways. A change in one area can result in numerous, unanticipated changes in areas not considered. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 5). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Interactions in a complexity perspective are characterized by creativity, interdependence, unpredictability, and collective knowledge. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Change is †¦ †¢ Something new or different †¢ To make or become different †¢ To alter; to make different; to cause to pass from one state to another; as, to change the position, character, or Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. appearance of a thing; to change the countenance †¢ To alter by substituting something else for, or by giving up for something else; as, to change the clothes; to change one’s occupation; to change one’s intention †¢ To give and take reciprocally; to exchange; followed by with; as, to change place, or hats, or money, with another Source: Webster’s Dictionary (1991). Innovation is †¦ †¢ Anything that creates new resources, processes, or values or improves a company’s existing resources, processes, or values (Christensen, Anthony, Roth, 2004) †¢ The power to define the industry; the effort to create purposefully focused changed in Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. an enterprise’s economic or social potential Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 6). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. evidence-based practice, linkages between clinical practice and scientific standards, the quest for consistency, minimizing idiosyncrasies, and providing a scientific basis for policy construction are the basic reasons for a change in health care. Using an evidence-driven model serves to provide focus and organization of change initiatives; evidence-based practice is the platform for nurses’ work. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 10). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. chaos is normative in health care. Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 14). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. Personal knowledge and accountability for one’s own strengths and limitations specific to change and innovation, including technical capability and computer literacy †¢ Understanding the essence of change and innovation concepts as well as the tools of innovation †¢ The ability to collaborate and fully engage team members— that is, relational competencies Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 14). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition. †¢ Competence in embracing vulnerability and risk taking Porter-OGrady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy. Leadership in Nursing Practice (p. 14). Jones Bartlett Learning. Kindle Edition.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Integrated Marketing Communication Program For Pillow

Integrated Marketing Communication Program For Pillow Executive summary: Various PILLOW COMPANIES such as SATYAPAL AND ARCHIES etc. design various integrated marketing program. Although common objective of all IMC program is increase brand awareness, sale and design a unique image in customers mind. In order to address and attract customer all PILLOW companies launch various campaigns. To communicate with public and customers they advertise their campaign on TV, magazine, online and radio. Through their advertisement they want to design their brand image in customer mind. Besides advertisement, they also carried out promotion activity, public relation, direct marketing etc. Direct marketing is although time consuming but most effective tool for communication. Various PILLOW companies also organize various events in order to communicate properly with customers. Main purpose of this is to increase the sale of PILLOW. Before designing IMC program the company carries out market research in order to judge customers behaviors toward the products. For research they design the strategy. Before designing integrated marketing communication program it is necessary to judge consumers behavior toward PILLOW, it is necessary to known customers liking and disliking, these data provide various support during designing of IMC program. Although there are various media available for communicating but Print ads in magazine and news paper is seen most effective medium followed by television. After Research survey done by various PILLOW companies, it has been found that respondents were less brand conscious. There is no particular trend among customers. â€Å"Durability† and â€Å"comfort† are the major attributes considered by customer while buying PILLOW. Marketing plan plan Situation Analysis: Every organization faces a lot of problem at present time so it became necessary for every organization that before setting any objective carried out situation analysis in order to recognize strength, weakness, opportunities and threat present in our organization. According to Sally and John, marketing plans are â€Å"the written document or blueprint for implementing and controlling an organizations marketing activities related to a particular marketing strategy†. A successful marketing plan is able to improve organizations profits and growth, uses in objective setting and monitors results. So to gain a successful market plan it is necessary to understand the current situation comprehensively and trends affecting the future of the organization. There are two major reasons to explain why situation analysis plays a vital role in developing marketing plan. Firstly, dynamic marketing environment will lead to uncertainty, threats and opportunities for marketers. Marketing managers who success to know changes in environment through situation analysis can lead their companies to capitalize on opportunities and cope with threats created by changes. Then, systematically analyzing situational environments in order to identify our customers and understand their needs. There are certain opportunities in pillow industry, such as increase construction of houses, hotels etc increase market and market share through integrated PR, and advertisement and promotional campaign. Besides opportunities there is a lot of threat that create barrier for entry in to PILLOW industry. These threats are as follow: Increasing competition High price and decrease loyalty toward brand Main objective behind situation analysis is to known analyze customer, competitor and there strategy. Marketing objective: After situation analysis we became able to known our organization strength, weakness, opportunities and threat present in environment. It provides a lot of support in setting of objective. There may be a lot of marketing objective, some are as follow: Increase market share Create awareness among target audience. Use excessive advertising especially using media preferred by the target market. Create product belonging and position among buyers mind Marketing strategies: To achieve this objective we implement various strategies. Target market: Urban personality: High income group Hotel owners Marketing Mix Strategies : Main aim of pillow companies is to produce durable and comfortable pillow in various designs. This is mostly done to capture attention. They produce new and innovative pillow to capture more market share. Several pillow brands jump in the Indian market by producing high quality of pillow. Pricing range from Rs 500 Rs 1000 Pillow does not need too much promotion. The distribution channels for Pillow Company are as follows. MANUFACTURER (COMPANY) PILLOW SEND TO SHOWROOM CUSTOMER Internal Process It is as follows. Sample Cutting Stitching Washing Pressing and labeling Finishing Dispatched to store Packing and containers Explanation The sample is first send by the buyer. Its called a gold seal sample. In cutting dept, one piece is placed on the other and in this way a bundle of 50 PILLOW is made. Then the cutter cuts it. In the stitching dept, front end or the upper part is made. Then backend is made and they are assembled together in the assembly end. Washing can be done by simple garment wash or through the stone wash and chemicals. It is done according to the buyers request. In finishing dept, the quality of pillow is checked and mistakes are rectified. Then the pillow dispatched to the store. Then packing is done. It is done according to the buyers request. Then they are sent to the containers. Implementation tactics : Launch a blind ad campaign on billboards and magazines in all a class areas of major cities and magazine. Heavy advertising on TV, newspapers and magazines Set displays of pillow in showrooms and major dealer outlets in all cities. Reduce number of billboards, television and magazines advertisements. Continue Advertising Evaluation, Monitoring and Control: Goal of marketing plan is to achieve market objective that are established before implementation of marketing plan. We evaluate and control our strategic tactic by comparing our result with standard established before setting of plan, by measuring customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. If result is less than our standard than there any is default in implementation and monitoring. The people who are responsible for the monitoring and control of the marketing plan involves, the Marketing Executives, Sales Managers, Media Managers, Market Research Departments, and the Production Managers. Some activities must be carried out for precisely and closely evaluating the effectiveness of the strategies and tactics for example the gathering and structuring of data regarding market, product, consumers and the pricing trends, then the generation of daily sales report should be maintained and then in the end continuous reconfirming of the marketing budget and activities by the managers of different divisions. The Integrated Marketing Communication Plan Integrated Marketing Communications is a term used to describe a holistic approach to marketing communication. It aims to ensure consistency of message and the complementary use of media. The concept includes online and offline marketing channels. Online marketing channels include any e-marketing campaigns or programs, pay-per-click, affiliate, email, banner to latest web related channels for webinar, blog, micro-blogging, RSS, podcast, and Internet TV. Offline marketing channels are traditional print (newspaper, magazine), mail order, public relations, industry relations, billboard, radio, and television. A company develops its integrated marketing communication programme using all the elements of the marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion) So Integrated marketing communication is integration of all marketing tools, approaches, and resources within a company which maximizes impact on consumer mind and which results into maximum profit at minimum cost. Promotional activities include Advertising, sales promotion, and personal selling activities. It also includes internet marketing, sponsorship marketing, direct marketing, database marketing and public relations. And integration of all these promotional tools along with other components of marketing mix to gain edge over competitor is called Integrated Marketing Communication. Situational analysis : First of all we carried out we carried out situation analysis in order to understood problem. In this we identify our competitors and their strategy for example Archies carried out competitor analysis and find out various strategy adopted by other pillow companies. After situation analysis Archies find out that the California gold rush whose trademark blue pillow have been an American clothing staple for generations, had fallen on hard times by 2004 and needed a change in strategic direction.After seven consecutive years of falling sales, profits turned to losses in 2003. Management responded to the decline by moving its manufacturing plants offshore and by introducing a new line of discount pillow in showroom. Under situation analysis we also analyze financial position of company. IMC objective : There are various IMC objective set by pillow company after situation analysis in order to accomplish their goal. Some of objective is as follow: To Increase sale by 50% in six month To Increase brand awareness To Increase customer loyalty To Increase desire of customer To Increase repeat purchase To measure customer satisfaction To create relationship with customer on personal level To control and observe public opinion To receive feedback from customer on regular basis Media objectives state the impact that you expect to have on an audience in terms of reach and frequency. Objectives must meet the following criteria: Measurability Quantifiability Realism time-specificity Budget determination: We need to establish what amount of money will be needed to achieve the IMC objectives.Although there is various methods present to determine what amount of money invest on IMC. These methods are as follow: Affordable Method Percentage of Sales Method Unit of Sales Method Zero Budgeting Method In affordable method we invest money on IMC as soon as we can afford. However in Percentage of Sales Method amount of money invest on IMC tool depend on what amount of sale we expect to achieve during course of year. These percentages are mostly adhoc and sometime based on judgment. In Unit of Sales Method Company allocate a certain proportion of cost of product to promotion. Thus say if ex factory cost of the product is say Rs 100/ the company will allot Rs.10/- toward promotion cost. Hence if company expects sale 10,000 unit of the product, thus allocated IMC budget will be Rs.100.000/-. In Zero Budgeting Method, company determine what need to achieve in term of sale and then rework backward in term of what money will be needed to be allocate to deliver those customers. Thus if company believe that in order to achieve their sales, 10,000 customers need to purchase their jeans once during the planning period than it will work out what number of prospective customers will needed to be targeted through ATL and BTL activity, in order to achieve that result. IMC Methodologies There are various component of integrated marketing communication that is as follow: Advertisement Advertisement is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas or products by an identified sponsor. Objective of any ads is to increase brand awareness. Objectives: There are mostly three objective of advertisement campaign, that is as follow: Inform Persuade Remind 1. Inform: Informative advertising, seeks to tell the market about the pillow, explain the new quality added in pillow, provide information on pricing, and build awareness of both the pillow quality and the company. Such objectives are normally pursued at the launch of a new quality pillow, or re-launch / up-date of an existing pillow. 2. Persuade: Here objectives are to encourage the target audience to switch brands, make the purchase, and create a preference in the market for the pillow as opposed to its competition. Advertising of this nature is required in highly competitive markets, where a range of pillow design competes directly with each other. In such circumstances businesses often seek to differentiate their pillow through Comparison Advertising either directly or indirectly comparing its pillow to that of its competitors. 3. Remind: Reminder Advertising, is used to maintain interest and awareness of a well established pillow brand in the market, often in the latter stages of its product life cycle. It is often used at the Point-of-Purchase to remind consumers of the Brand. Advertisement budget: Having identified advertising objectives, the advertising budget must be set. Determining exactly how much a business should spend on advertising to achieve the desired level of sales. Commonly, the decision is based on past experience of expenditure on advertising, and the sales subsequently achieved. There are however a number of factors that can be considered in setting the advertising budget Factors influencing the setting of advertising Budgets: Product life cycle stage: New products in the Launch stage of their Product Life Cycle, will normally require greater expenditure on advertising to create product awareness, and encourage consumers to trial the product. Whilst products that have reached Maturity in their product life cycle, will often require smaller advertising budgets to achieve the level of sales required. Competition: The number of competitors in the market, and their expenditure on advertising competing products, will influence a business to spend to a similar or higher degree. Product Differentiation: A product very similar to other products on the market may require greater expenditure on advertising to differentiate it from its competitors. Advertising Strategy: Developing an Advertising Strategy to achieve the objectives of a campaign, requires that consideration be given to both the ‘Message which will be communicated and the ‘Media through which it will be sent Advertising Message An advertising campaign, no matter how much money is spent, no matter what media is used, will only be successful if the Message appeals to the target audience. Given the level of advertising which bombards the average consumer, a successful advertising message must stand out amongst the advertising clutter. Thus marketing professionals are required to be creative, imaginative and innovative in developing the advertising message, both in terms of what is said, and How it is said? What is said This is often referred to as the ‘Big Idea, and will normally address the key benefits sought by the target audience, motivating the audience to pay attention. Given the constant search for new ways to appeal to target audiences, it is difficult to categories the content of advertising messages which a business may send; below we include a couple of examples of actual message strategy. For example: Satyapal brand, pillow and clothing: Satyapal. Keep it Simple. Satyapal, Its True. Fashion is nothing without people. In this example massage that draw attention of youth is quality must should be greater because without quality, fashion is zero. How they say it During delivery of advertisement massage in customer mind take the personality symbol, lifestyle and musical as consideration. In addition the tone of the advertisement will need to be established, which can be either positive or negative. The advert may therefore promote positive feelings of fun, contentment, and happiness or take on a more negative, somber, or even threatening tone. Selecting Advertising Media: In addition to deciding upon the content, style and tone of the advertising message, the media through which the message will be communicated to the target audience must also be selected. Mostly for pillow advertisement we select media such as magazine, newspaper and outdoor. TV rarely used for advertisement of pillow. In order to select the most appropriate media, consideration must should be given to various advantage and disadvantage of various media. Strengths and weakness of various media are as given below: Television : Strengths Dynamic attention getting media, combining visual, sound and animated stimulus. Strong potential Impact High market coverage Good at demonstrating products Weaknesses: Highly expensive Poor at communicating lengthy technical information Newspapers: Strengths: Targeting is possible through profiling readership Good level of market coverage Weaknesses: Static media, not suitable for product demonstration Potential for poor reproduction, sometimes limited to black and white print Short-life span, i.e. todays newspapers become tomorrows rubbish Magazines: Strengths: High quality reproduction, of color images Targeting is possible through specialist publications Good pass on readership Weaknesses: Static media, not suitable for product demonstration Lengthy lead-time between advert being placed and magazine being published Outdoor: Strengths: High repeat exposure to advert Relatively low cost Low levels of competition, in terms of advertising clutter Weaknesses: Limited audience selectivity / targeting possible Static media, not suitable for product demonstrations Difficult to monitor effectiveness â€Å"Make them your own† is the name of the campaign launched by Archies to boost the sale of pillow. This is one of the most aggressive marketing and advertising strategy followed by pillow to move up the sales. The theme of this marketing campaign is narcissistic youth. It will feature youth who will check themselves out in pillow. The advertising will target the age group of house hold wives. Mostly Archies also select TV, Magazine, and Newspaper as a media for delivering there massage about their product in customer mind. PRINT AD OF PILLOW Sale promotion: Sale promotion is collection of various consumers and trade promotional tool such as rebate, discount, gift, contest, coupons, price deal, contest game, sampling etc. to increase sale of products. There are certain objectives of sale promotion. However main objective is to increase immediate sale because Sales Managers are under great pressure to produce results quickly. Objective: There are certain objectives of sale promotion that are as follow: To increase immediate customer sale To increase support among the marketers sales force. To gain the support of the trade in marketing the product Reasons for Growth of Sales Promotion: There are number of reason for growth of company in sale promotion some are as follow: 1. Increasing Competition Due to increase in competition, companies are finding it increasingly difficult to compete on quality. They are therefore resorting to more innovative methods of sales promotion. In order to have a competitive advantage over its competitors like ARCHIES, SATYAPAL.JNO, once a year has a grand sale of up to 50%. 2. Customers Have Become More Price Sensitive: The increase price sensitivity is direct result of rampant inflation. Economic support this trend further, as a result customers and dealer became more sensitive toward price. If the customers get branded PILLOW at half the actual price, then they are definitely going to make huge purchases of SATYAPAL PILLOW because they want value for their money, as they are price sensitive. 3. Sales Promotions Generally Create an Immediate Positive Impact on Sales: Advertising, personal selling and other methods of promotion produce slower impact on sales in compared to sales promotion. Sales promotions are mostly for short duration, for a specified period, leading to a sense of urgency in consumers to buy now. This creates an immediate positive impact on sales. 4. Products have become more standardized: In many product categories there is proliferation of brand or line extension and me too many brands. Most of brand perceived by consumer varies little in price. Due to this it became very difficult for advertiser to reposition their product in customers mind. Due to which they focus on more and more on sale promotion to get immediate result. 6. Advertising Has Become More Expensive and Less Effective: All the advertising media have become quite expensive. Audio-visual medium, which is considered as the most effective for short-duration ads, may cost in excess of Rs. 1 lakh for a 10 second exposure during prime time. In many cases, consumers have reached a point of boredom due to excessive advertising on TV. Firms with small budgets cannot compete with big companies, which spend huge sums of money on advertising. For these small budget firms, sales promotion is a more cost-effective promotion method to produce sales results. 7. Trade Has Become More Powerful: At present time Retailers and wholesalers have became more powerful and demand extra facility from company to promote their product. Company has no other alternative. Besides these there is also various kind reason such as Excess Stocks, Impulse Buying Is Increasing, Sales Promotions Maximize Profits etc. Promotion Strategies: Promotional strategy is mostly run to change consumers behavior, to increase brand image, to increase profit, to increase sale of various good. There are mostly two kind of sale promotion, one is directed toward consumer and other one is directed toward trade such as dealer, supplier, retailer etc. Consumer sale promotion tool: there are a lot of promotional tool used to increase sale. Consumer sale promotion is directed toward consumer. It stimulate consumer to purchase their product rapidly. There are a lot of tool that are as follow: Price deal: Price deal is temporary reduction in price of product. There are two type of deal: cents-off deals and price-pack deals. Price deal is given at various times to stimulate purchase of pillow. Coupon: A coupon is typically a printed certificate giving the bearer a stated price reduction or special value on a specific product, generally for a specific period. Various company issue various kind of coupon that contain various discount price, customer get the advantage of this discount and purchase pillow at low price. Offer: There are various kind of gift is offer by various pillow industries. For example the branding magazine said that the archives will be conducting a marketing campaign centered on the idea that your favorite songs and your favorite pillow, make the perfect fit. Customers who try on a pair of the retailers new pillow will receive a free iTMS download. The campaign will be marketed with print and TV ads, and will feature TV commercials with musicians singing covers of their favorite song while wearing satyapal jeans. The company will be offering those collected covers in a CD at retail ARCHIES locations for customers who make a US$60 or more ARCHIES purchase. Premium: sometime various companies like Jno, SATYAPAL etc. offer some gift or at bargain price to encourage customer buying. Sampling: Some company like American eagles to known customer feedback provide free simple of various PILLOW according to their preference. Advertising Specialities: Advertising specialities also call a promotional product. It mostly given to our loyal customers. It includes various card like birthday card, New Year card. It is mostly done to retain old customer. Trade sale promotion tool: Objectives of Trade Sales Promotion: Gain/maintain distribution Influence resellers to promote product Influence resellers to offer price discount Increase reseller inventory Defend against competitors Avoid reduction of normal prices There are various sale promotion tools that stimulate trade to promote company product. There are a lot of trade sale promotion tools some are as discussed below: Trade Allowances: Trade allowances are short-term special allowances, discounts, or deals granted to resellers to stimulate reseller to rapid purchase of their product. Point-of-Purchase Display: Point-of-purchase displays are generally used at the retail level to call customer attention to a featured product. In this company employees observe every retail shop and that retail shop that display more company product will be winner of special gift or prize Trade Shows: A trade show is periodic, semi periodic public event at which supplier displays their Pillow and provides information about pillow quality and price to potential buyer. After implementing these different techniques of sale promotion we monitor result and evaluate these by comparing with objective set before implementation of plan. Public relation Public relation is nothing but creating a favorable relation for organization and product which is done through used of various communication channel and tool. So public relation is mostly done to improve the image of company and build good image in customers mind. So public relation may be define as â€Å"Public Relations is a set of management, supervisory, and technical functions that foster an organizations ability to strategically listen to, appreciate, and respond to those persons whose mutually beneficial relationships with the organization are necessary if it is to achieve its missions and values. Objective: like other aspect of marketing, public relation is also used to address several broad aspect of marketing like: Building Product Awareness When introducing a new product or relaunching an existing product, marketers can use a PR element that generates consumer attention and awareness through media placements and special events. Creating Interest: Public Relation create public interest to use the product at least for once time. Providing Information: Through the Public relation we can provide a lot of information about company activity and their product feature and service provided by company. This information is delivered to public through newspaper, article website, collateral material; PR helps in delivering information that helps to public in understanding the product feature. Stimulating Demand: A positive article in a newspaper, on TV, news show or mentioned on the Internet, often results in a discernable increase in product sales. Reinforcing the Brand: In many companies like JNO, SATYAPAL PILL Company the public relations function is also involved with brand reinforcement by maintaining positive relationships with key audiences, and thereby aiding in building a strong image. Direct Marketing Direct marketing is business of selling company product directly to customers through mail order, telephone, fax, e-mails, or web selling, rather than through retailers. Objective: There are mostly to objective for which direct marketing is carried out these are as follow: Convert not user to user. It is mostly done to obtain new client. The identification of new potential clients is very crucial when it comes to recruit new prospects and transformed them into your clients. The perpetual loyalty of customers. A loyal consumer cost less than new customers. Strategy: Various pillow industry like archives, satyapal involved in direct marketing to get more market share. These companies sent a mail-order catalog to approximately prospective customers. 100-page catalog, developed in-house, targets both men and women and also contains 10 pages devoted to home products. There are various tools for direct marketing these are as : Direct mail, Telemarketing, Email Marketing ,faxing, Voicemail, Couponing, Direct response television marketing. Besides these pillow producing company also used various methods to promote their product. One method that archiess has recently taken is Path Breaking Strategy. Path breaking strategy byARCIES: This strategy is mostly for that pillow whose cost above Rs.600. We know a lot of thing about EMIs for house, car and other kind of white goods. But these EMIs is first time adopted by archives for jeans. This idea has been conceptualized by archives. Downturn market, cost cutting everywhere and empty pockets is the present situation; and here to curb all these hindrances, Archies is now, for the first time ever offering EMI facilities on its pillow in India. Simply shop for more than Rs. 600 and you can avail this offer. This amount will be set off through your credit card in three equal installments. They have also tied up with ICICI Bank for the credit card settlement. There are certain objectives behind this strategy that are as follow: To increase the sales of premium pillow wear category that is worth more than Rs. 800 per pillow. To ensure sales throughout the year irrespective of seasonality: How will this objective be achieved: Indian market for apparels is highly driven by seasonalit

Friday, October 25, 2019

Comapring Father/Daughter Relationships in King Lear and A Thousand Acr

Father/Daughter Relationships in King Lear and A Thousand Acres   Ã‚  Ã‚   The bond between a father and a daughter stands as one of the strongest emotional bonds present within many families. From the moment their little girls emerge from the womb to the moment their young women marry, the father reigns as the head of the household, the controller, and the protector. Though this rings true for many families, sometimes Daddy's little girls make all the rules. They possess the ability to acquire what they want through their incessant whining, crying, and batting of their eyelashes. Daddy's little girls assert control over most situations and possess negotiating skills that rival those of the best Wall Street stockbrokers. Pulling at Daddy's heart, Daddy's little girls play their fathers like puppets. Daddy appears as the head, but everyone knows who reigns as the boss. Though a father takes on the leadership role as the male figure head of the family, the role of protector makes the father-daughter bond particularly strong. Fathers protect their little girls from all harm so they proclaim. What happens when something shatters the respect and trust within the father-daughter relationship? What happens if the father hurts the daughter or vice versa? William Shakespeare's King Lear and Jane Smiley's A Thousand Acres delve into the subject of father-daughter relationships. Both works of literature carefully examine the father-daughter theme, but, in King Lear, Lear receives the sympathy and not his sinister, evil daughters, Goneril and Regan, while in A Thousand Acres Larry Cook emerges as the villain, the daughters, Ginny and Rose, emerge as the heroines.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In every family resides the favorite. The favorites get eve... ...es stand as the ones that survive through the storm that rages in their lives. Although some of the heroes ultimately die, Lear of King Lear and Ginny and Rose of A Thousand Acres establish themselves as examples of total self-respect. Though people disrespect them, they persevere and live their lives to the best of their abilities emerging as the only true, heroic characters.    Works Cited Harbage, Alfred. " King Lear: An Introduction." Shakespeare: The Tragedies: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood: Prentice-Hall, 1964: 113-22. Knight, Wilson. "King Lear and the Comedy of the Grotesque." Shakespeare: The Tragedies: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Prentice-Hall, 1964: 123-38. Shakespeare, William. King Lear. New York: Scholastic, 1970. Smiley, Jane. A Thousand Acres. Thorndike: Thorndike Press, 1991.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Skywest Inc

Case 6 : Sky West Inc. and the Regional Airline Industry 1. 3 Business Model 1. Network Carriers legacy carriers Hub-and-Spoke 2007 United, Northwest, American, Continental Delta 2005 5 82 % 10 0 25. 3 2. Low Cost Carriers low cost business model point-to-point Southwest JetBlue legacy Low Cost Low Cost United Airlines Low Cost United Ted Airlines Delta Low Cost Delta’s Song Airlines 3. Regional Carriers Jets Legacy Network (Hub-and-Spoke) short-haul flight Regional Airlines block-hour incentive Regional 95 % Regional Regional Hub-and-Spoke Legacy Regional Airlines Partner SkyWest Inc History Origins in the Early 1970s SkyWest Dixie Airline St. George Utah 1972 J. Ralph Atkin 4 Dixies Commuter Airline Atkin Fixed Base Operation (FOB) Air Charters Air Ambulance Service Mar 1972 Atkin SkyWest Airlines 1974 Jerry C. Atkin Ralph Atkin's nephew $25,000 Oct 1975 Reorganized 3 SkyWest Expansion in the Late 1970s 1976 Hughes Air West Cedar City-Salt Lake City SkyWest Navajo Chieftans 5 National Parks Transportation Company Avis Franchises 2 Cedar City St. George. 1977 Interline American Airlines ? Check-in Interline SkyWest 1978 1. SkyWest Commuter Airline ( Regional Airline) 3 Certified Air Carrier Federal Government Regulations Major Airlines 2. Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) SkyWest 3 $160,000 Page Arizona Yuma, Kingman, Prescott, Grand Canyon, Tucson, Winslow Phoenix, Arizona, Blythe, Los Angeles, and El Centro, California. 3. SkyWest Fairchild Metroliner II $1. 4 ( $150,000) Growth from Deregulation, Acquisition, and Affiliations in the 1980s 1978 Major Airlines United, Western American Airlines Regional Airlines SkyWest 1983 Metros 7 Navajo Chieftans 5 Cessna 207s Charters SkyWest Reagan Reagan Professional Air Traffic Controllers Association 24 Sep 1981 SkyWest Arizona Metro SkyWest 1982 SkyWest 10 Republic's Escort 1980s SkyWest Mail, Small Packages, and Bank Documents 10 % 1983 SkyWest 2 Regional Airlines St. George 17 6 250 Customer Service Aug 1984 SkyWest Las Vegas Palm Springs, California Southern California Palm Springs Sun Aire 1968 Borrego Springs, California San Diego 90 1983 Sun Aire 330,000 1985 Sun Aire SkyWest Metros SkyWest 12 14 Sun Aire 28 Sun Aire Facilities American Airlines Los Angeles SkyWest/Sun Aire Major Market SkyWest Regional Carrier 11 Holding Company SkyWest, Inc. , 3 1. SkyWest Airlines Inc. SkyWest Aviation Inc. ) 1998 Regional Airline 5 12 Business Travelers SkyWest Commuter Airline Ski Resorts California SkyWest Airlines Delta Continental Airlines 2. Scenic Airlines Air Tours, General Aviation Scheduled Flights Grand Canyon Arizona, Utah, Nevada 3 . National Parks Transportation franchise Avis 1985 SkyWest Code-Sharing Western Airline Salt Lake 70% 1987 Delta Airlines Western Airlines SkyWest Delta Code : DL SkyWest SkyWest/Sun Aire Western Express Delta Connection. Logo Code-Sharing Major Regional Airlines 1980 United Airlines Regional United Express American Airlines American Eagle Network 1980 SkyWest Brasilia EMB-120 Turboprop Regional Airlines SkyWest California 1986 Sun Aire acquisition SkyWest NASDAQ 1987 SkyWest Air Transport World's Commuter/Regional Airline 500 Regional Airlines 988 SkyWest $2. 3 California 28 Events in the 1990s Jun 1993 Aviation Services West, Inc. Flight Tour Scenic Airlines, Inc. , Las Vegas Grand Canyon Aviation Services West Scenic Airlines, Inc. 1994 SkyWest Delta Salt Lake City 5 Casper, Wyoming; Butte, Montana; Burbank, California; Rapid City and Sioux Falls, South Dakota SkyWest Canadair Regional Jets (CRJs) Bombardier, Inc. Brasilias 50 540 1,200 miles 41,000 Oct 1995 SkyWest Continental Airlines Code-Sharing SkyWest Continental Connection Los Angeles SkyWest 3% Continental Flights 1996 48% Delta 1996 SkyWest 2. 5 16 SkyWest Brasilias 50 Canadair Regional Jets 10 Metroliner 1 Oct 1997 SkyWest United Airlines United Express SkyWest Connecting Flight Los Angeles 1997 SkyWest 25 SkyWest 585 45 12 Salt Lake City Vancouver Canadair Regional Jets 19 Jan 1998 SkyWest United United Express San Francisco Hub United June 1, 1998 1998 SkyWest Connecting flight 3 Major Airlines Delta, United Continental 1 July 2002 SkyWest Tucson Arizona. 8 Dec 2002 United Airlines Partner SkyWest Chapter 11 2003 SkyWest Bombardier CRJ700 70 30 United Express 9 May 2003 SkyWest code-share Continental Airlines SkyWest regional Continental Houston, The US Department of Transportation SkyWest 2003 SkyWest DOT SkyWest 1 5 regional carriers DOT 2004 †¢ hub Chicago, IL (ORD) †¢ Colorado Springs, CO (COS) CRJ †¢ Delta Dallas/ Fort Worth Hub (DFW) SkyWest †¢ SkyWest ,000 †¢ DOT SkyWest 2004. [pic]2005 †¢ SkyWest, Inc. Atlantic Southeast Airlines Delta Air Lines. †¢ Chicago O’Hare. †¢ Sky West Inc. Partner United Delta 2006 Legacy 2 2006 †¢ SkyWest CRJ900 †¢ Dec 2006 SkyWest Inc. SkyWes t Midwest Partner [pic]2007 †¢ SkyWest Airlines Midwest Connect / Delta Connection / United Express Legacy 2 (Delta Connection / United Express) Outsource 20 SkyWest Inc. Denver, Chicago, Los Angeles San Francisco United express SkyWest Inc. Outsourcing Delta †¢ SkyWest Delta Connection Department of Transportation Cedar Utah 8 Jan 2008. Source: Annual Report 2007 SkyWest Inc. Skywest Inc. 2. : Bridging the Region Gap from West to East SkyWest Inc. Regional Airline Western Eastern SkyWest Airlines ASA artner Legacy Airlines : safety / on time arrival / service and quality / fairness and consistency / working together as a team / personal and corporate integrity and maintaining profitability & Efficient Use of All Resources. SkyWest Inc. : Partner Legacy Airline / : Developed industry-leading reputations for providing quality, low-cost regional airline service. 3. (Functional Level Strategy) [pic] Inbound Logistics: Service , , , Ground Handling Equipment, Operations: Outbound Logistics: Marketing and Sales: †¢ Distribution Legacy Airline Partner †¢ Product Design Service : (Functional Level Strategy) (Competitive Advantage) 3. 1 Superior Efficiency : Superior Efficiency SkyWest Inc. Product Design: †¢ 0. 03 USD 0. 095 USD. †¢ Partner Legacy Airline †¢ (routine maintenance) Human Resource: †¢ †¢ – 90 - Retirement Plans SkyWest Inc. – Teamwork Information System Function: †¢ Interline American Airlines Check-in †¢ Republic's Escort Marketing: Product: (Cost per Available seat mile) Place: – Code Sharing Market Share – Partner Legacy SkyWest Inc. 2006 SkyWest Inc. 3,114 2005 1,964 ( Exhibit 6) 3. 2 Superior Quality Superior Quality SkyWest Inc. Reliability: The Aviation Safety Action Program Program Stetson Quality Suite SkyWest Inc. SkyWest Airline Regional Airline 15 2004 2005 SkyWest 84. 5% SkyWest 1% 50% 2006 SkyWest Airlines 1. 2 % 1. 7 % Reliability SkyWest Airlines . 3 Superior Innovation: Process Innovation – SkyWest Airline ASA 2 – Partner Legacy Airline 3. 4 Superior Customer Responsiveness SkyWest Airlines DOT 2 2003-2004 Functional Strategy SkyWest Inc. Superior Customer Responsiveness †¢ Superior Efficiency : Product Design Upgrade 0. 103 USD 0. 095 USD. †¢ Superior Quality : Customer Service 4. (Business Level Strategy) (Functional Level Strategy) . What needs will be satisfied? SkyWest Inc. Regional Airline Legacy Airlines partnership 2. Who will be served? Connecting flight Legacy Airlines (Broad Target) 3. How will those needs be satisfied? On-time service with quality. Business Strategy SkyWest Inc. Cost Leadership Competitive Positioning Efficiency Quality – – Business Leisure (Broad Target) Legacy Airlines partner – Western Eastern – Customer Services) Business Strategy Functional Strategy Superior Efficiency Superior Quality Superior Customer Responsiveness 5. (Corporate Level Strategy) SkyWest Inc. 1. Concentration Growth: †¢ Horizontal Growth ASA Partner Legacy Airline Partner Legacy Airline Partner (Contract Agreement Term) †¢ Intensive Growth Improve Competitive Position Regional Airline 2. Retrenchment Sell-out National Parks Transportation Scenic Airlines Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA) [pic] (Concentration Strategies) 1. Market Penetration SkyWest Inc. Upgrade ( CRJ 50 ) Legacy Airline (Contract Agreement Term) Legacy Airlines 2. Market Development ASA ( ) Eastern Partner Legacy Airline 6. 6. 1 (Organizational Structure) SkyWest Inc. Geographic Structure (Destinations) SkyWest Airline Atlantic Southeast Airline (ASA) Functional Structure Decision Making SkyWest Inc. Centralized ( www. SkyWest. com/about/exec. php , www. flyasa. com , www. SkyWest,Inc. htm ) 6. 2 (Organizational Culture) SkyWest Inc. Efficiency and Quality Efficiency : Part Time 3 Ticket Agents / Baggage Handlers SkyWest Airlines $40,000 $202,000 ASA Airlines Quality: †¢ SkyWest Airline Maintenance Department AMT Award 3 2004 – 2006 †¢ The US Department of Transportation SkyWest 2003 2004 6. 3 (Organizational Leadership) â€Å"Chairman, President and CEO Jerry Atkin accept the Airline Business magazine award for Regional Airlines Leadership† Efficiency and Quality 7. (Strategic Control) 7. 1 Efficiency: †¢ SkyWest Inc. ASA Delta SkyWest Inc. SkyWest SkyWest 70 90 50 †¢ 2007 SkyWest Inc. SkyWest ASA ? †¢ ASA Regional SkyWest ASA Cost per available seat [pic] 7. 2 Quality: †¢ SkyWest Inc. The US Department of Transportation SkyWest 2003 2004 †¢ SkyWest Inc. the Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration Stetson Quality Suite software SkyWest Inc. ? Partner Legacy Airline 7. 3 Innovation : †¢ Midwest, Bradford R. Rich , CEO Treasurer SkyWest Inc. SkyWest Midwest †¢ ASA Teamwork ? 7. 4 Customer Responsiveness : The US Department of Transportation SkyWest 003 2004 Legacy Airlines 8. (Strategic Evaluation) 8. 1 Established standards and targets : Regional Airline Partner Legacy Airline FAA / DOT TSA Regional Airline Legacy Airline Partner Legacy Airline 8. 2 Create measuring and monitoring system : Yield/RPM, Revenue/ASM, Cost/ASM Miss baggage handling rate 8. 3 Compare actual performance against the established targets : ? 8. 4 Evaluate result and take action if necessary : (Statements of Income / Balance Sheets / Air Travel Consumer Report) easuring and monitoring system 9. SkyWest Inc. (Functional Level Strategy) : Superior Efficiency Superior Quality Superior Customer Responsiveness †¢ Superior Efficiency : Product Design 0. 103 USD 0. 095 USD. Superior Quality : (Customer Service) (Business Level Strategy) : Cost Leadership Competitive Positioning Efficiency Quality – – Business Leisure (Broad Target) Major Airline Partner – (Customer Services) – Western Eastern (Corporate Level Strategy) : 1. Market Penetration SkyWest Inc. ( CRJ 50 ) Legacy Airline (Contract Agreement Term) 2. Market Development ASA ( ) Eastern Partner Legacy Airline Bridging the Region Gap from West to East Regional Airline Western Eastern Operations Developed industry-leading reputations for providing quality, low-cost regional airline service. 10. (Effectiveness of Strategies) Profitability (ROIC) Profit Growth 5 5 5 MESA AIR, ALASKA AIR, EXPRESSJET, PINNACLE AIRLINES REPUBLIC AIRWAYS 6 002-2006 : |Airlines |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | |SKYWEST |86. 87 |66. 79 |81. 95 |112. 27 |145. 81 | |MESA AIR |-11. 27 |25. 31 |26. 28 |56. 87 |33. 97 | |ALASKA AIR |-118. 60 |13. 50 |-15. 30 |-5. 90 |-52. 60 | |EXPRESSJET |84. 28 |108. 18 |122. 77 |97. 99 |92. 7 | |PINNACLE AIRLINES |30. 79 |35. 07 |40. 73 |25. 70 |77. 80 | |REPUBLIC AIRWAYS |7. 69 |36. 14 |38. 85 |60. 65 |79. 51 | |Total |79. 75 |284. 98 |295. 28 |347. 58 |377. 05 | (Source : Annual Report year 2002-2006 ) Plot 2002-2006 [pic] SkyWest Inc. SkyWest Inc. 2005 SkyWest Inc. SkyWest Inc. ASA Delta 2005 ASM (Available Seat mile) SkyWest Inc. (Passenger Revenue) Ground Handling Service Major Airline Partner ASA 2005 SkyWest Inc. 2002 – 2006 :    |   |   |   |   |   | |   |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | |OPERATING REVENUES: | | | | | | |Passenger | 769,427 | 882,062 | 1,139,580 | 1,938,450 | 3,087,215 | |Ground handling and other | 5,020 | 5,964 | 16,464 | 25,598 | 27,441 | |Total operating revenues | 774,447 | 888,026 | 1,156,044 | 1,964,048 | 3,114,656 | |   | | | | | | |OPERATING EXPENSES: | | | | | | |Total operating expenses | 654,892 | 779,546 | 1,011,268 | 1,743,640 | 2,775,496 | |   | | | | | |Interest expense |3,611 |9,891 |18,239 |53,330 |118,002 | |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   | |   |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | |OPERATING REVENUES: | | | | | |Passenger |14. 64% |29. 19% |70. 10% |59. 26% | |Ground handling and other |18. 80% |176. 06% |55. 8% |7. 20% | |Total operating revenues |14. 67% |30. 18% |69. 89% |58. 58% | |   | | | | | |OPERATING EXPENSES: | | | | | |Total operating expenses |19. 03% |29. 73% |72. 42% |59. 18% | |   | | | | | |Interest expense |173. 91% |84. 40% |192. 0% |121. 27% | |   |   |   |   |   | 2002 -2003 2004 2002 – 2006 |Airlines |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | |SKYWEST |71. 96% |-23. 11% |22. 71% |36. 99% |29. 87% | |MESA AIR |76. 56% |324. 57% |3. 86% |116. 37% |-40. 27% | |ALASKA AIR |-173. 27% |111. 38% |-213. 33% |61. 44% |-791. 53% | |EXPRESSJET |75. 31% |28. 36% |13. 49% |-20. 18% |-5. 4% | |PINNACLE AIRLINES |116. 10% |13. 91% |16. 13% |-36. 90% |202. 74% | |REPUBLIC AIRWAYS |26. 73% |370. 00% |7. 51% |56. 12% |31. 09% | |Total |190. 78% |257. 33% |3. 62% |17. 71% |8. 48% | Plot 2002-2006 [pic] SkyWest Inc. 2002-2006 2003 CRJ200s EMB120s ROIC |ROIC |= |Net Profit (After Tax) | |   |   |Invested Capital | ? Invested Capital = Total Equity + Total Long-term Debt ( http://finapps. forbes. com/finapps/jsp/finance/compinfo/) (Annual Report) Sky West 2001-2006 ROIC : | |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | | | | | | | | |Net Profit (After Tax) | 86,866 | 66,787 | 81,952 | 112,267 | 145,806 | | | | | | | | |Total Asset | 999,384 | 1,529,210 | 1,662,287 | ,320,646 | 3,731,419 | | | | | | | | |Total Equity | 638,686 | 709,063 | 779,055 | 913,198 | 1,178,293 | |Long-Term Debt | 125,379 | 462,773 | 463,233 | 1,422,758 | 1,675,626 | | | | | | | | |Total Invested Capital | 764,065 | 1,171,836 | 1,242,288 | 2,335,956 | 2,853,919 | | | | | | | | |ROIC |11. 37% |5. 70% |6. 60% |4. 81% |5. 11% | (Source: Annual Report from www. SkyWest. com) ROIC SkyWest Inc. ROIC 5 MESA AIR, ALASKA AIR, EXPRESSJET, PINNACLE AIRLINES REPUBLIC AIRWAYS 6 2002 – 2006 ROIC Airlines |2002 |2003 |2004 | 2005 |2006 | |SKYWEST |11. 37% |5. 70% |6. 60% |4. 81% |5. 11% | |MESA AIR |-5. 67% |8. 14% |3. 87% |6. 99% |4. 44% | |ALASKA AIR |-7. 84% |0. 85% |-0. 92% |-0. 33% |-2. 74% | |EXPRESSJET |31. 53% |39. 46% |42. 49% |27. 21% |20. 37% | |PINNACLE AIRLINES |37. 52% |48. 96% |34. 67% |18. 41% |35. 68% | |REPUBLIC AIRWAYS |- |7. 18% |3. 97% |3. 44% |3. 99% | Plot [pic] SkyWest Inc. ROIC 2003, 2005 2006 2003 CRJ200s EMB120s 005 ASA Delta ROIC 2005 ROIC 11. (Problems) SkyWest Airline : (Miss baggage handling) Atlantic Southeast Airline : – Cancel flight – – (Miss baggage handling) – (On-time) ASA 12. (Issues) 1. Partner Low Cost Airlines (South West Airline and Jet Blue) 2. Partner 13. (External Environment Analysis) (External Strategic Factors) (Opportunity) (Threat) (Attractive or Unattractive Industry) 13. 1 General Environment [pic] a) Economic segment 4 US Inflation rates | |[pic] |Current Inflation Rate | |Year | |Jan | |Feb | |Mar | |Apr | |May | |Jun | |Jul |Aug | |Sep | |Oct | |Nov | |Dec | |Ave | | | |2009 | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | |NA | | | |2008 | |4. 28% | |4. 03% | |3. 98% | |3. 94% | |4. 8% | |5. 02% | |5. 60% | |5. 37% | |4. 94% | |3. 66% | |1. 07% | |0. 09% | |3. 5% | | | |2007 | |2. 08% | |2. 42% | |2. 78% | |2. 57% | |2. 69% | |2. 69% | |2. 36% | |1. 7% | |2. 76% | |3. 54% | |4. 31% | |4. 08% | |2. 85% | | | |2006 | |3. 99% | |3. 0% | |3. 36% | |3. 55% | |4. 17% | |4. 32% | |4. 15% | |3. 82% | |2. 06% | |1. 1% | |1. 97% | |2. 54% | |3. 24% | | | |2005 | |2. 97% | |3. 01% | |3. 15% | |3. 51% | |2. 0% | |2. 53% | |3. 17% | |3. 64% | |4. 69% | |4. 35% | |3. 46% | |3. 42% | |3. 9% | | | |2004 | |1. 93% | |1. 69% | |1. 74% | |2. 29% | |3. 05% | |3. 27% | |2. 99% | |2. 65% | |2. 54% | |3. 9% | |3. 52% | |3. 26% | |2. 68% | | | |2003 | |2. 60% | |2. 98% | |3. 02% | |2. 22% | |2. 6% | |2. 11% | |2. 11% | |2. 16% | |2. 32% | |2. 04% | |1. 77% | |1. 88% | |2. 7% | | | |2002 | |1. 14% | |1. 14% | |1. 48% | |1. 64% | |1. 18% | |1. 07% | |1. 46% | |1. 0% | |1. 51% | |2. 03% | |2. 20% | |2. 38% | |1. 59% | | | |2001 | |3. 3% | |3. 53% | |2. 92% | |3. 27% | |3. 62% | |3. 25% | |2. 72% | |2. 72% | |2. 65% | |2. 13% | |1. 0% | |1. 55% | |2. 83% | | | |2000 | |2. 74% | |3. 22% | |3. 76% | |3. 7% | |3. 19% | |3. 73% | |3. 66% | |3. 41% | |3. 45% | |3. 45% | |3. 45% | |3. 39% | |3. 8% | | | |1999 | |Fiscal Year |Domestic |International |Total |% change | |2006 |660. 9 |89. 7 |750. 6 |0. 46 | |2007 |693. 3 |75. 8 |769. 1 |2. 46 | |2008 |713. 8 |79. 8 |793. 6 |3. 19 | |2009 |735. 7 |84 |819. 7 |3. 29 | |2010 |758. 9 |88. 3 |847. 2 |3. 35 | |2011 |782. 6 |92. 9 |875. 5 |3. 4 | |2012 |807. 7 |97. 6 |905. 2 |3. 39 | |2013 |833. 4 |102. 3 |935. 7 |3. 37 | |2014 |860. 5 |107. 2 |967. 7 |3. 42 | |2015 |888. 4 |112. 3 |1,007. 1 |4. 07 | |2016 |917. 7 |117. 6 |1035. 3 |2. 80 | |2017 |848. 4 |123. 1 |1071. 6 |3. 51 | Source: Forms 41 and 298-C, US Department of Transportation Forecast % Passenger change [pic] Source: RAA Industry Life Cycle †¢ Forecast % Demand Passenger change Airline Industry 2006 Life cycle Airline Industry Airline Industry Regional Airlines Regional Airlines 1970-2006 Life cycle Regional Airlines ? Industry Life Cycle Growth ) Strategic Groups [pic] Y Performance Performance Partner Airline Legacy X c) Strategic Types : Strategic Type Regional Airline Defender Regional Airline Performance Partner Legacy Airline Regional Airline †¢ Legacy Airline †¢ FAA TSA DOT Upgrade †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ d) Key Success Factors : †¢ On Time Schedule Sector †¢ Regional Airlines ? Hub Time Elasticity †¢ Destinations Regional Airline †¢ Cost Regional Airline Partner

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

P.T. Barnum essays

P.T. Barnum essays The late 19 th century was era of vast change and social, economic, andindustrial upheaval. Many of the changes during the 19th century can beseen in our 20 th century society. The growth of classes created new distinctionsbetween the rich and the poor that remain with us today. Especially in the1880sand 1890s, it can be observed how many workplaces, consumer choices, recreationalpursuits, and demographic patterns underwent transition or transformation (Thomson 12). The remnants of the traditional society which existed priorto the Civil War era were seldom to be seem. The changing role of women,the rise in immigration, the expansion into the West, the growth of the middle class, the growth of the urban poor, the changing media and communication:all of these transformations contributed to the new society that was emerginginthe late 19th century. The growing importance of the middle class isevidentin their increasing control of the country's political, social,and culturalagendas. They promoted the consumerism that defines this eraand our livestoday. The growth of the middle class as well as the growing separationof the middle class from the low-income manual laborers define the differences that begin to emerge at the close of the 19th century. Itis this vast upheaval of the notion of classes, the role of women and immigrants, and the positionof workers which characterized the modernization of the19th century. Itwas the changes in class, work, ethnicity, and religionin America whichsparked transformations in the cultural and social pursuits. One endeavor which can be seen as a result of this mass upheaval in rolesandposition is the rise and popularity of freak shows. The role of freaks inthe entertainment of each class and culture of Americans is seen in theliteratureof the era. It often seems shocking that the conservative culture of VictorianAmerica would enable freak shows to be popularized. However,when examiningthese literary works...

Monday, October 21, 2019

102 Intro to Fallacies Professor Ramos Blog

102 Intro to Fallacies Intro to Fallacies Quick Write Fallacy Definition a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument. a failure in reasoning that renders an argument invalid. faulty reasoning; misleading or unsound argument. We will be talking about fallacies today. These are general definitions of a fallacy. In your own words, what is a fallacy? What fallacies have you heard of? Intro to Fallacies Your textbook has a good list of fallacies beginning on page 363. One important point to keep in mind is that we are always using logic to justify what we believe. The problem comes when we begin with assumptions instead of questioning our position. Fallacies are connected to the different appeals: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. Remember, Ethos is appeals to credibility or character Logos is appeals to logic and reason Pathos is appeals to feelings or emotions. Appealing to ethos or pathos is not in itself a fallacy, only appealing to them or using them unethically is.  Here is an example of a fallacy used to persuade. Why do we say this is a fallacy? Key Terms Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it. Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim. Conclusion: A claim that is supported by a premise. Valid: An argument whose premises genuinely support its conclusion. Unsound: An argument that has at least one false premise. Fallacy:  An argument that relies upon faulty reasoning. Booby-trap: An argument that, while not a fallacy itself, might lead an inattentive reader to commit a fallacy. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy – Fallacies This is a great resource for further reading on fallacies and how they are  not so simple. The article  lists 223 of the most common fallacies. I do not expect you to know them all or to never use any. Fallacies are controversial. We appreciate logic and honesty in Western rhetorical thinking and that is at odds with many fallacies. Fallacies are not necessarily wrong, they work very well and are very good at persuading people. Fallacies are considered unethical and so we try to avoid them. They are thought of as flaws in thought, tricks, and sneaky uses of persuasion to convince others. Emotional Fallacies (Pathos) Scare Tactics – Scaring people and exaggerating dangers. Also known as fear mongering. Scare Tactic Fallacy example. Either-or Choices / False Dichotomy – Oversimplification to only two choices. Slippery Slope – Exaggerating the consequences of an action. Sentimental Appeals – Excessive emotion intended to distract. Bandwagon Appeals – Follow the path of everyone else. Ethical Fallacies (Ethos) False Authority – Offering yourself or other authorities as sufficient evidence. Dogmatism – persuade by assuming a position based in biblical passages. Dogmatism Fallacy example Moral Equivocation – suggesting that serious wrongdoings do not differ from minor ones. Ad Hominem  (At the person) – Attacks directed at character instead of the claims or argument. Logical Fallacies (Logos) Hasty Generalizations – conclusions drawn from insufficient evidence. Jumping to conclusions. The most common fallacy you will encounter. Hasty Generalization example Faulty Causality – assuming because one event happened after another, the first causes the second. Begging the Question – a form of circular logic. an argument based on claims that cannot be accepted as true. Equivocation –  the use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself. Non Sequitur  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ an argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically. The Straw Man – Misrepresenting an argument in order to knock it down. Arguing something that is not really there. Faulty Analogy – An extended comparison that is inaccurate or inconsequential. Red Herring –  Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what’s really at stake. Often, the arguer never returns to the original issue.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How does Charles Dickens create suspense and fear in The Signalman Essays

How does Charles Dickens create suspense and fear in The Signalman Essays How does Charles Dickens create suspense and fear in The Signalman Essay How does Charles Dickens create suspense and fear in The Signalman Essay Essay Topic: Literature Charles Dickens uses many methods to create suspense and fear in The Signalman story. He introduces fear to make the short, ghost story more interesting. Dickens set his ghost story on a railway line, which at the same time has a very modern setting and not a traditional dark, crooked old house. The tale begins with a gripping and dramatic opening line, which instantly grabs the readers attention. The first line introduces the narrator who was left anonymous throughout the story. This instantly builds up tension, as the reader does not know what sort of a person the narrator really is. When the narrator is a character in the story, it makes it easier to know how the person is feeling; this makes the reader more aware of the character and can begin to relate to them. Charles Dickens begins to create fear and suspense in the first couple of lines. The story begins with halloa! Below there! The words were shouted by a mysterious figure standing above the cutting on top of the bridge. It leaves us guessing who had shouted the words; all we know at this point is that it was a figure in the distance. Halloa was an informal welcome in the late 19th century. The actions create mystery, which is effective to create the overall suspense. Also you still havent had any kind of a physical description of the signalman so at this time you dont even know if hes human or not and you cant just make an guess you have to read on. The description of the signalman is also quite fearful as when he describes him with, pale skin, dark hair and eyes, you feel quite scared of him, when they say he has his hand to his chin, that is quite mysterious. You want to know why he has his hand to his chin The signalman is an important character as once they get talking and his actions are very weird to start off with; He stands carefully in the railway with his hand on his chin, not moving a muscle until they are face to face Before he stirred I was near enough to have touched him. Also when they do meet he makes no attempt to start the conversation, instead he looks at the red light Look towards the red light He seems very mysterious and again pretty strange. As they begin to talk again the man becomes slightly threatening and the narrator thinks that he might be a ghost This was a spirit. This is a very tense point in the story because the ghosts identity may have already been given away, but the signalman begins to show fear and asks if they have met before. After their conversation the man leaves and the signalman tells him that on his return journey not call out those words. Halloa! Below there. It builds tension over what these words really mean to the signalman and why he is scared of them. The signalman himself looks mysterious A dark pale man. This would add to the readers suspense and build up the tension, as he gets closer. They go back to the signal box and from his long description you realise that he is quite a knowledgeable man Worked at fractions and decimals. If he is so clever why is he a signalman? He is also a very skilled workman Safest of men to be employed. These questions add mystery to who he really is, which in builds up the suspense. Within their talk, the signalman looks outside toward the tunnel more than once. This creates mystery of whats going to happen, and why does he keep looking out of the box? In the first conversation he tells the man that he is troubled. This makes you ask the question what is he troubled about and does it have anything to do with his weird actions before? Could he be or knows the ghost? These questions make you think about whats about to happen? This also builds suspense. On the mans return visit he is told about the mysterious figure and how it disappeared. It was gone. This long passage describing the ghosts actions adds tension and what is the ghost going to do next? He also clears up his odd actions (when he looked down the tunnel). The ghost says those very same words. We now know that he is not the ghost so some tension is lost but it is now a matter of if the man will see the ghost and what it will say. He also tells the man of the lady who died in the carriage just after he had seen the figure Within six hours after this appearance, the memorable accident happened. You begin to think of the death and the ghosts and start wondering whos next? He is described as seemed to make the place strike colder to me, but I said no more.. This a weird description to give someone, could he be the ghost? As you here about the ghost, the narrators actions are very intriguing,. The man has the same reactions when he hears about the second ghost In the end it is the narrators fault that the signalman dies because if he hadnt called down to him in the first place, the signalman would have looked up as the train came down the tunnel. Below there, look out. The first words of the story are the most decisive words of the story. Could it have been fate? And no matter what had happened between the start of the story and his death, it couldnt have been prevented. The man obviously feels responsible for his death and you feel that if he hadnt called down to the man none of this would of happened. This is quite a mysterious and even more, a scary thought.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Essay Example Literature Review According to medical field, ADHD is caused by Defect in the central nervous system of a child. The doctors suggest that this disorder can be controlled to an extent by the elimination of refined sugar and other food additives. â€Å"Among students with ADHD, medication treatment was not related to better adjustment or diminished ADHD symptoms. The contribution of inattention to academic concerns and depressive symptoms remained significant when controlling for personality traits†(Rabiner,2007,pg. 689-6990).However, nature is found to be the best medicine for this disorder at all times. Children learning in an open space with access to tress, plants, flowers and waterfalls have seen to be more attentive and pleasant while learning. Method The method used in this research is the quantitative research method, where in the effectiveness of natural treatment on ADHD suffering children is analyzed by surveys. The behavioral patterns of the children when accessed to natural surrounding is studied by survey a better idea of effectiveness of the natural treatment .This gave an opportunity to assess the situation of the children with disease with regard to the natural environment.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Importance of trainning and education. Is it important yes or no why Essay

Importance of trainning and education. Is it important yes or no why - Essay Example This can be achieved only through learning. We also need education to answer all the basic questions we may have about life – how did life originate, what is land, water and air, why is the sky blue, how can we build houses, and so on. Education is required on both personal and professional fronts. In order to acquire a job, we need to be qualified for it and possess an appropriate degree. In personal life, we need to communicate, calculate, reflect on our experiences, know basic manners, etiquette and civic behavior, etc. All this is acquired through education at home, at school/college and everywhere else. In order to apply the learning acquired through education, one needs proper training. For instance, learning how to manufacture a car theoretically does not necessarily enable an individual to actually perform the task. This especially applies to specialized functions that are a part of any profession. Therefore, to be able to have a good professional career, one needs to be trained for the job. Training, however, is not just required for a successful career but also for basic chores that are a part of daily life. Even the very act of speaking, that comes naturally to every individual, is acquired through the education and training that an individual subconsciously acquires in childhood. Innumerable surveys have shown that employers seek well qualified employees. Employers are especially interested in problem-solving and communication skills that include computational skills, good work habits, linguistics skills, money handling, and oral and written communication (Natriello 1). These skills can only be acquired through education. In addition to education, employers place more emphasis on experience especially that acquired through internships or prior employment (Fischer 1). Experience is acquired through training, either on job, or through internships. Employers place more weight on experience because it ensures that a

Encountering the Old Testament Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Encountering the Old Testament - Assignment Example Nonetheless, as Cain called on God to provide some protection for him, as he feared being slain in his journeys, God yielded to Cain’s prayers and granted that â€Å"anyone who kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times over† (Genesis 4:15 The New International Version). The Divine protection of Cain enabled him to reside safely in the eastern land of Nod, and to build the first city on the Earth, named after his first-born son, Enoch. The mercy of God thus proved instrumental in the development of human civilization (Arnold & Beyer, 2008). The case of Cain demonstrated that Lord God is simultaneously wrathful and merciful, ready both to punish and to forgive. The story of the Ark of Noah that may be found in the selfsame Book of Genesis is further testimony to this capacity of God, and, therefore, it is necessary to dwell on it in detail. According to Genesis, the Flood was caused by especial depravity of humans then living on Earth, who went as far as entering into sexual relations with â€Å"sons of the God† (i.e. the fallen angels; Genesis 6:2 The New International Version). ...The Covenant of God with Noah and his successors (Genesis 9:8-10 The New International Version) proved that Divine mercy is always quick to return to those who show their obedience to God’s will. The story of Jonah may likewise be invoked here. When Jonah declined God’s dictum to go to the city of Nineveh and preach against its residents’ wickedness, Lord God sent a great storm against the ship carrying him (Jonah 1:4 The New International Version). Eventually, Jonah was consumed by the belly of the â€Å"huge fish† sent by the Lord, and he was there for three days and three nights (Jonah 1:17 The New International Version). However, God’s mercy wathe s still shown to Jonah, as, when he gave prayer to the Lord in hope of salvation, God commanded the fish to release Jonah, and he was able to continue his way, going to Nineveh t o fulfill God’s will.  

Apple Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Apple - Essay Example This is a unique technique to apple. It contains a wide range of products that welcomes support from many customers who purchase them. The company is a leading innovator of mobile devices. It enjoys most profits from the sale of mobile technology than other companies. The retail stores ensure a strong customer relationship with the company. High pricing of commodities differentiate it with the prices at Hp. While Hp specializes in manufacture of PCs, apple switched and concentrated on producing mobile devices. Apple enjoys a cost strategy to remain and sustain the market. Their products have a unique technology that enjoys the market share. Despite the high pricing that rocks the market, still the company registers large number of sales. The customers believe that the products are of high quality because of the company’s reputation. This technique puts the company as the second most valued brand in the whole world. Despite the high competition that is in the technology business, apple still uses high pricing as strategy that enables them remain relevant in the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Apple Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Apple Case Study - Essay Example The security of the employees is highly enhanced at Apple such that they are not free to shed light to the outsiders on what goes on inside the company. Apple’s CEO, Tim Cook leadership style is described as a methodical and no-nonsense style. He makes tough decisions to be followed by the employees. If Tim Cook continues to be the CEO, negative comments upon him will not change because he is very ruthless to employees at work and has fired a company head of iOS development that had launched the iOS for the consumers. If I am a highly qualified software developer, I would like to work with Apple despite the harsh treatment of employees because they promote and secure the innovativeness of employees which is my dream career in designing the best software in the world. According to Apple’s vision statement, employees are ranked as creators of structures and systems in order to ensure that the products produced can fully satisfy the consumers. Apple has introduced digital music revolution with iPods, iTunes and iPads which has given the consumers future expectations of high tech devices. The strategic plan of Apple in identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company in future is a good take since it will improve its interaction with the consumers through introduction of more retail outlets (Hitt, Hoskisson and Ireland, 2013). Apple’s business philosophy of following the loyal customers and management of human resources has been the key objective during Steve Jobs leadership and today when Cook is the CEO. The business philosophy seems to be the same even after Cook took over from Jobs may be because Cook at this moment is struggling to follow the footsteps of his predecessor. The commanding of employees at work seems to be the same as that of Jobs. Lashinsky view on the Apple’s organizational structure seems better than the Apple’s 10K because it focuses on division of labor which increases

Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Portfolio Essay

Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Portfolio - Essay Example ess of the shopping malls all over the UK, the Metrocentre has been ranked 2nd in 2011 (Metrocentre 2012, Capital Shopping Centres 2012, Wood 2011, Capital Shopping Centres 2011). Apple’s presence can also be seen in Metrocenter’s lower red mall. The company sells its products and applications to its customers through its retail shop. Apple faces less competition in the shopping center since its major competitors, like Samsung, Microsoft, Dell, etc. are not present in the mall (Metrocentre 2012). Body shop is a world renowned fragrance seller and the company sells its products in different parts of the world. The company faces competition from other competitors like The Fragrance Shop (Metrocentre 2012). Barclays bank offers cash withdrawal facility to the customers who visit Metrocenter. There is only one ATM point placed by Barclays in the shopping mall in the Upper Red Mall. The bank is in direct competition with Lloyds TSB as it has also placed its ATM machine in the mall (Metrocentre 2012). Burger King, as the name suggests, is a burger expert which offers burgers in different varieties to its customers. Burger King is in direct competition with McDonald’s and KFC particularly. Moreover, it is in indirect competition with other restaurants operating in the mall. It is located in Lower Blue Mall (Metrocentre 2012). Cafà © Nova, which is engaged in the restaurant business, is also operating in the Metrocenter. The Cafà © provides different food items and beverages to its customers. The competition faced by the Cafà © is direct with other Cafà ©s situated in the mall. Cafà © Nova is located in Upper Green Mall (Metrocentre 2012). Claire’s offer accessories for women and children, which also include jewelry items for ladies. The retail outlet of Claire’s is situated at Lower Blue Mall in the Metrocenter. Claire’s is in competition with competitor like Pandora and others operating in the mall (Metrocentre 2012). Clarks is situated at Lower Red Mall in

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Apple Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Apple - Essay Example This is a unique technique to apple. It contains a wide range of products that welcomes support from many customers who purchase them. The company is a leading innovator of mobile devices. It enjoys most profits from the sale of mobile technology than other companies. The retail stores ensure a strong customer relationship with the company. High pricing of commodities differentiate it with the prices at Hp. While Hp specializes in manufacture of PCs, apple switched and concentrated on producing mobile devices. Apple enjoys a cost strategy to remain and sustain the market. Their products have a unique technology that enjoys the market share. Despite the high pricing that rocks the market, still the company registers large number of sales. The customers believe that the products are of high quality because of the company’s reputation. This technique puts the company as the second most valued brand in the whole world. Despite the high competition that is in the technology business, apple still uses high pricing as strategy that enables them remain relevant in the

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Portfolio Essay

Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Portfolio - Essay Example ess of the shopping malls all over the UK, the Metrocentre has been ranked 2nd in 2011 (Metrocentre 2012, Capital Shopping Centres 2012, Wood 2011, Capital Shopping Centres 2011). Apple’s presence can also be seen in Metrocenter’s lower red mall. The company sells its products and applications to its customers through its retail shop. Apple faces less competition in the shopping center since its major competitors, like Samsung, Microsoft, Dell, etc. are not present in the mall (Metrocentre 2012). Body shop is a world renowned fragrance seller and the company sells its products in different parts of the world. The company faces competition from other competitors like The Fragrance Shop (Metrocentre 2012). Barclays bank offers cash withdrawal facility to the customers who visit Metrocenter. There is only one ATM point placed by Barclays in the shopping mall in the Upper Red Mall. The bank is in direct competition with Lloyds TSB as it has also placed its ATM machine in the mall (Metrocentre 2012). Burger King, as the name suggests, is a burger expert which offers burgers in different varieties to its customers. Burger King is in direct competition with McDonald’s and KFC particularly. Moreover, it is in indirect competition with other restaurants operating in the mall. It is located in Lower Blue Mall (Metrocentre 2012). Cafà © Nova, which is engaged in the restaurant business, is also operating in the Metrocenter. The Cafà © provides different food items and beverages to its customers. The competition faced by the Cafà © is direct with other Cafà ©s situated in the mall. Cafà © Nova is located in Upper Green Mall (Metrocentre 2012). Claire’s offer accessories for women and children, which also include jewelry items for ladies. The retail outlet of Claire’s is situated at Lower Blue Mall in the Metrocenter. Claire’s is in competition with competitor like Pandora and others operating in the mall (Metrocentre 2012). Clarks is situated at Lower Red Mall in

Universal symbol of an idealised woman Essay Example for Free

Universal symbol of an idealised woman Essay Donne becomes jealous of her bust that surrounds her breasts because not only is it right next to what he desires but also it remains stiff whereas he is beginning to lose his erection: Off with that happy busk, which I envy, that still can be , and still can stand so high. His frustration in the situation is starting to make his self esteem lapse; Donne thinks that the power that women wield is enough to cause you to lose confidence. To Donne she is a natural figure and therefore he begins to compare her to organic subjects, he talks about how she is like a beautiful meadow having been revealed from the hills shadow: Your gown going off, such beauteous state reveals, as when from flowery meads thhills shadow steals. Donne believes that love and women are natural and blossoming and that they should be treated like they are as integrated as trees and hills. Donne also compares his ideal woman to a continent that he is about to explore: O my America my new found land He feels so much for this woman and wants her so badly that he compares to a place that he wishes to rove and discover her body and experience sexual arousal. He sees women as a new and exciting experience and love the reward. Swift never gives his subject such respect and praise as to compare her to a country but instead likes to make fun of this poor woman and at the same time have a go at the religious activities at the time: But never from religious Clubs whose favour is she sure to find. Here he suggests that she does not get in trouble because she gives sexual favours to corrupt priests and other religious kinds, he finds women and Religion as deceitful and untrustworthy as each other. Donnes poem is addressing one woman but it seems that this woman is not one that he has met or encountered but rather a woman that represents everything that he believes to be special and important about women. Although the imagery set up by Donne by his words give the impression of a dramatic situation were he is actually talking to his beloved, it is possible to see her as a universal symbol of an idealised woman; Donne obviously feels that woman are an extremely important part of life and without them there would not be love and without that his life would not be complete. At one point he even compares his universal woman to god, by saying that god gives grace to certain people on earth and women give their grace (their heaven) which is their bodies to certain men: Whom their imputed grace will dignify must see revealed. He believes that women have the power of god because they can give their bodies to certain men and to a man a womans body is like heaven on earth. This figure represents Donnes ideal woman, he is worshipping a figure that believes to be more important than a lot of things in life. He sees her as an elevated subject to which respect must be laid, this concept is not so much heroic but has touches of classical poetry, it is not heroic because the language used is not elaborate enough and nor does in have connotations to other heroes. But the way in which he praises an elevated subject is like how classical poets praised gods. The way in which both address their subject is very important because Donne is direct we are encapsulated by her and we feel pulled in just as he is. By talking to her in direct speech it makes the scene more dramatic and exciting. But Swift talks about his subject in the third person, which keeps her at arms length just as we would if we met this woman. The verse that each poet uses is also important in their conveying of themes and ideas; Swift uses iambic tetrameter which was used in comic poetry because it makes the verse simple. He uses the Caesura in each line effectively as well, sometimes he has it early and others it is late depending on what he wants to emphasise in the line. Donne uses iambic pentameter which is a far more orthodox method of writing at that time.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Effect Of Semantic Category Psychology Essay

The Effect Of Semantic Category Psychology Essay Tuving, suggested that in order to attain good memory banks, one way of retrieving information is to organize words that have a relationship with one another. For example, clustering words together in one category could help achieve better recall, rather than words that are randomly mixed. Clustering could help re-organize memory, therefore, attaining information more effectively. The aim of this study was to replicate Cofer, Bruce, and Reichers (1966) experiment of presenting semantic category instances in blocked lists. This method was used and it was predicted that memory for words will be superior, when words are visually blocked by semantic category, as opposed to being blocked randomly. This hypothesis was fully supported. Thus, the null hypothesis, there will be no difference when words are blocked by semantic category or blocked randomly across categories, was rejected. An unrelated design was used and opportunist sample of 40 1st year psychology undergraduates at City Univer sity took part in the experiment. The independent variable, blocking by semantic category had two levels. Half of the participants were assigned to the first level of the independent variable, blocked by semantic category. They were presented with six blocks of related category list words, which consisted of six related instances in one category. The second half of the participants was assigned to the second level of the independent variable, blocked randomly. The participants were presented with six blocks of listed words of randomly mixed instances, of several categories. The dependent variable was memory for words that were visually presented. The memory for words was measured under each condition, by the mean score of the written free recall, out of 36 words correctly remembered, after a 90 second period. The results indicated that people in the blocked by semantic category condition recalled more remembered words, with a mean score of 24, than those in the blocked randomly cond ition. The blocked randomly condition mean score were much lower; their mean score was 19. It was therefore concluded that this current research was very consistent with Cofers et al (1966) findings that clustering related words together in one category could help re- organize memory, so information could be attained more efficiently. Introduction: word count: 824 According to Kalat (2009) memory is organized by a complex network of interrelated neurons within the brain; that can hold millions of pieces of independent data. It is this ability of our mind to store detailed, organized memories of past experiences that makes us capable of learning. These experiences stored in the form of memories help us learn from mistakes, protect us from danger, and achieve the goal that we set, by harnessing the power of our memory. We are better able to learn life lessons that help us avoid mistakes in the future, based on our own past, and the malfunction of others. Tulving (1972) recognized that individuals had two types of long-term memory, episodic and semantic memory. According to Tulving (1972) episodic memory is autobiographic, which is a memory system that consists of episodes of individuals past experiences, of particular objects. Normally these objects are stored in our long term memories and can be retrieved, at any given time. For example, remembering loved ones, or a representation of a meaningful event, or even what one might eat for breakfast, are all forms of episodic memories. Semantic memory however, is referred to the memory of meanings, and understandings. Eysenck and Keane (2000) suggested one way of thinking about memory organization is coding. Semantic memory could be held for a few minutes or several years. This model suggests that some information is stored and coded visually. Yet to gain access to our memory banks and retrieve relevant pieces of information, is trying to gain access to our memory banks of the learned inf ormation. One way of achieving this, is with organization and practice. Craik and Tulving (1972) described this as deep semantic processing in their levels of processing approach. They suggested that when a particular stimulus is processed, we need to concentrate on word meanings to help aid our memory banks as opposed to paying too much attention to visual and phonemic features. When people use this approach for a particular task or even revision for exams in real life, empirical evidence has shown that deep semantic processing could even be achieved when one is not trying to remember, as demonstrated by Craik and Tulving (1975), incidental task. In order to attain good memory banks, one way of retrieving information is to organize words that have a relationship with one another. For example clustering words together in one category could help achieve better recall, rather than words that are randomly mixed. Clustering could help re-organize memory, therefore, attaining information more effectively. Gross (2005) suggested that while poor memory can sometimes be the result of a mental handicap or disability, it most often has to do with a lack of attention or inability to concentrate, poor listening skills, and other types of bad habits. Fortunately, you can re-train yourself with proper habits to develop and fine-tune your memory. The basic tool for developing better memory is the clustering technique. There has been many experiments that have demonstrated this particular organization for attaining memory. One study was Bousfeilds (1953) experiment; words that were placed into categories were more accurately remembered than a list of unrelated words. Another particular study conducted by Cofer, Bruce, and Reicher (1966). They identified that presenting semantic category instances in blocks actually increased recall. The remembered words of instances of one category, was much higher than the recall of the blocks of instances of the randomly mixed categories. Subsequently, this current study replicates Cofer, et als (1966) clustering technique experiment. The independent variable was the presentation of blocking by semantic category. There were two levels of the independent variable, blocked by semantic category, and blocked randomly. The manipulation of the independent variables was the way the participants corresponded to the presentation of 36 words, grouped into six blocks of six words. Half of the participants were assigned to the first level of the independent variable, blocked by category. The participants were presented with six blocks of listed words, consisting of six instances of one category. The second half of the participants was assigned to the second level of the independent variable, blocked randomly. The participants were presented with six blocks of listed words of randomly mixed instances, of several categories. The dependent variable was memory for words that were visually presented. The memory for words was measured under each condition, by the mean score, of the written free recall, out of 36 words correctly remembered, after a 90 second period. If the reasoning behind Cofer, et al s (1966) experiment was correct then we can then expect that memory for words will be superior, when words are visually blocked by category, as opposed to when they are blocked randomly. This is the experimental hypothesis and is directional, as it predicts the results. However, if Cofer, et als (1966) experiment cannot be explained, then there will be no difference in recall when words are blocked by semantic category, or blocked randomly across categories. Design: word count 215 The independent variable was the presentation of blocking by semantic category. The first level of the IV was, blocked by category, and the second level, blocked randomly. The manipulation of the independent variables was the way the participants corresponded to the presentation of 36 words grouped into six blocks of six words. An unrelated sample design was used. The advantage of this design was that both samples were seeing the same materials (words). However, the disadvantage of the design was individual differences. To control for this, random assignment to conditions to one of the two levels of the independent, (refer to appendix for allocation). Half the participants were assigned to the first level of the IV, blocked by category. They were presented with six blocks of listed words, consisting of six instances of one category. The second half of the participants was assigned to the second level of the IV, blocked randomly. They were presented with six blocks of listed words of randomly mixed instances, of several categories. The dependent variable was memory for words that were visually presented. The memory for words was measured under each condition, by the mean score of the written free recall, out of 36 words correctly remembered after a 90 second. Participants immediately recalled the words after the presentation. Participants: word count 72 In total there were 40 participants. 34 females and 6 male participants were 1st year psychology undergraduates at City University. Participants ranged in age from 18-40, with a mean age of 21-22. Each participant was currently taking part in a laboratory course in the social sciences building. Therefore the sample used was an opportunist one. However, due to the sample design, random allocation to conditions was very relevant due to individual differences. Apparatus and Materials: word count 215 Each participant was presented with a plan sheet of A4 sized paper. The experimenter, Dr. Stuart Menzies, randomly allocated half the participants material that consisted of either 36 nouns that were presented visually together into six blocks of listed words on one page. Each block consisted of six instances of one category. This condition was the first level of the independent variable and was named the blocked by category group. The other half of participants were randomly given, 36 nouns that were also visually presented together into six blocks of listed words on one page. This time however, each block consisted of randomly mixed instances of several categories. This condition was the second level of the independent variable, and was referred to as the blocked randomly group. (Please refer to the apparatus and material section for the blocked lists categories, in the appendix). The response mode was the written free recall of the remembered words after a 90 second period. The ti me was monitored by a stop watch. Participants immediately recalled the words in any order after the presentation (refer to appendix, instructions and words lists). The results were taken away and recorded by the experimenter, who noted them down on a data sheet. (See results section in the appendix for the raw data sheet,). Procedure: word count 252 The experimenter handed out material in a random fashion to participants. A list of 36 nouns were visually presented in six blocks, consisting of either six instances of one category on one sheet of sheet of paper, or randomly mixed instances of several categories on one sheet of paper. Blocked by semantic category consisted of six instances of one category. This condition became the first level of the IV. Randomly blocked categories consisted of randomly mixed instances of one category. This condition became the second level of the IV. The experimenter verbally translated the instructions of the task ahead, (please refer to apparatus and material section for instructions in the appendix). The dependent variable, memory for words was measured under each condition, by the mean score of the written free recall, out of 36 words correctly remembered. Each participant had 90 seconds to remember as many words from the six blocked lists. A stop watch was used to count down the time, after t he 90 second period expired, the experimenter then informed the participants to stop! Both word lists from the two conditions were taken away. Immediately after the presentation the participants were then asked to note down all of their remembered words in any order that they preferred. The experimenter had given a further 90 seconds to recall the remembered words. The written free recall scores was recorded, and measured by experimenter. The mean score of the two calculated differences were then obtained, (please see the mean scores in the appendix). Results: word count 313 The dependent variable was memory for words that were visually presented. The memory for words was measured under each condition, by the mean score of each condition of the written free recall, out of 36 words correctly remembered, after a 90 second period. Table 1 shows the difference of the mean scores of the two conditions, blocked by category and blocked randomly. The results indicated that more people in the blocked by category had remembered more words in the six blocks of listed words, consisting of six instances of one category, than the randomly blocked category lists condition.. (Refer to the results section in the appendix for the raw data, graph of the mean scores, and the full calculations of the Mann -Whitney U test). Memory for words visually presented. Measured by the written free-recall-score X/36 words Table. 1 Blocked by category condition Blocked Randomly condition Mean Spread Range 24 15-33 18 19 13-27 14 Mean score from the two calculated differences Since the samples were unrelated and can be ranked on an ordinal scale, a Mann Whitney U test was employed. A 1 tailed test was employed because the experimental hypothesises was directional. Using the statistical formula and tables, obtained from QM PS1007. Runyon and Haber (1976) The Mann -Whitney U test indicated N1=20, N2 =20 participants, Uobs = 0, p = 0.05 (1 tailed test). Ucrit = 138 =p= .005. Since the Uobs Discussion: word count 688 The aim of this study was to replicate Cofer et als (1966) experiment of blocked presentation, of presenting category instances in blocked lists. This method was used and the prediction that memory for words will be superior, when words are visually blocked by semantic category, as opposed to whose words are blocked randomly, was fully supported. Thus, the null hypothesis, there will be no difference when words are blocked by category or blocked randomly across categories, was rejected. The results indicated more people in the blocked by category condition recalled more remembered words, with a mean score of 24 than those in the blocked randomly condition. The blocked randomly condition had much lower recall scores; the mean score was 19. Eysenck and Keane (2000) suggested that gaining access to our memory banks is best applied through organization. Tulving, (1972) recognized that there are two memory system for long term memory. One is semantic memory and the other is episodic. Semantic memory, as mentioned in the introduction, is referred to the meanings and understandings of general objects based in the world we live. Semantic memory could be held for a few minutes or several years. This model suggests that some information is stored and coded visually. Yet to gain access to our memory banks and retrieve relevant pieces of information, is actually gaining access to our memory banks, of the learned information. One way of achieving this, is with organization and practice. Summarizing the previously learned literature has helped to illustrate how memory could be obtained and re- trained by applying clustering techniques for memory organization. This could be just some of the possibilities of why the blocked by category condition had produced a much higher recall of remembered words, than the randomly blocked condition. It would seem from the results of Bosfeilds (1953): Cofer, et als (1966) and this current study could be achieved by organization. Semantic memory does liked to be organized, and if this organization is not in sight, then the less likely it is, for us to attain good memory banks for recall. Consequently, Cofer, et als (1966) experiment identified that presenting category instances in blocks, actually increased recall, and the remembered words of instances of one category was much higher than the recall of the blocks of instances of the randomly mixed categories. Therefore, this current study was very consistent with Cofer, et als (1966) findings. The data suggests that there was an overall majority of recalls made in the blocked by category condition. Thus, there were some methodology limitations in this current study. Individual differences was a concern however, randomization to conditions was effective. However, larger randomized controlled trails could provide more definitive evidence, the bigger the population, the better the results would indicate, (Miller, 1984). A number of caveats need to be noted regarding this present study. Firstly, there was the unrepresentative sample, such as more females than males, and the unlimited range of ages. This study could be improved by having an equal amount of males and females and a wider range of ages. Further research may want to look at gender differences in clustering. Females may attain a good memory compared to men and vice versa. Also this study could also be improved by implementing more conditions, for example, blocked by category, followed by blocked randomly. Blocked randomly, followed by blocked by category. This could be achieved by comparing the related samples with both blocked presentations to find out if organization for words in categories is better than mixed word instances in memory recall. Another limitation could be that more time is needed to encode the words more effectively. Practice may help participants encode more information. With more time added several conditions could be c ompared. The blocked by category could have two or three conditions but with new participants each time. Each of the conditions could have varied times to encode the blocked category lists. One condition could have two minutes; the next condition could have three. The same procedure could then be applied to the randomly blocked condition. All of the mean scores could be compared to establish whether time has an impact on clustering words together. A further limitation could be the use of the stopwatch to time the participants. The time may not have been entirely accurate. Participants may have had more or less time to encode the information presented to them, or to recall the words. This could have confounded the findings. To control for this, future research could perhaps use a large digital clock counting down the time left. Many memory experiments find out if clustering is effective for memory recall. According to Tulving (1972), clustering could help re-organize memory, therefore, attaining information more effectively. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. Psychologists could perhaps look at children of different ages. The experimenters could investigate when memory organization emerges. This could help provide an insight to when our organization for memory begins. Words could perhaps be visually presented to children in the form of animal characters which are either related or not related. The children could then recall the remembered animal characters. If the children recall more of the related animal characters, than the unrelated characters, then this may determine when organization for memory begins. Another reasonable approach is to look at whether organization for memory declines with age. Youths and pensioners could be compared to see which ag e group has a better organization for words. It can be concluded that organization of memory does aid semantic memory. The research literature has shown effective techniques such as clustering words together to help aid our memories. The results of this current study did show that memory is aided well, if our organization of words is structured. References Bousfield, W. A. (1953.) The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229-240. Cofer, C.N., D.R. Reicher, G. M. (1966) Clustering in free recall as a function of certain methodological variations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 858-866. Craik, F.I.M. Tulving, E. (1975) Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journey of Experimental Psychology, 104, 268-294. Eysenck, M, W. Keane, M, T. (2000) Cognitive Psychology- a students handbook. Psychology Press. Gross, R. (2005) Psychology -The Science of mind and Behaviour. Typeset by GreenGate publishing services, Tonbridge Kent. Miller, S. (1984.) Experimental Design and Statistics. London, Typeset LTD. Kalat, J. W. (10Eds,), (2009). Biological Psychology. USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Tuving, E (1972) Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tuving W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory. London: Academic PressAppendices: Table of context Page Appendix 1: Design section: P12 Allocation to conditions. Appendix 2: Apparatus and Material section: P13 Instructions, word lists. Appendix 3: results section: P15 Raw data graph showing mean scores Appendix 4: Mann- Whitney U test: P17 Full calculations Appendix 5: Stimulus and response: P19 Participant 9, recalled words Appendix 1: The table below is showing the allocation of participants (Ps) to conditions. 15 females and 6 male participants were 1st year psychology undergraduates at City University. Each participant was currently taking part in a laboratory course in D112 of the social sciences building at City University. Therefore, the sample used was an opportunist one. Because there were two unrelated samples, an independent measures design was employed. Blocked by category condition Blocked randomly condition P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 P27 P28 P29 P30 P31 P32 P33 P34 P35 P36 P37 P38 P39 P40 Ps =20 Ps =20 Appendix 2 Your investigation The aim of you experiment is to investigate whether presentation of category instances to participants in a blocked or in a randomly mixed fashion affects recall. You are thus attempting a replication of the study by Cofer, Bruce and Reicher (1966), and the basis of their finding and the other evidence mentioned above it would seem appropriate to state a directional (one tailed) hypothesis. State the null hypothesis as well. Remember that both the aims and the hypothesis need to be formally stated in a very clear and specific manner at the end of the introduction section of you report. Employ an independent groups design, with at least 10 participants in each of the two conditions (the larger you overall sample size the better). The dependent variable (the measure) will be the number of words correctly recalled. The independent variable (the manipulation) will have two levels corresponding to the different ways of presenting words to participants in two conditions. Describe the two conditions and any controls against confounding variables. Remember that, apart from the manipulation of the independent variable, everything should be held constant (standardized) across the two conditions of the experiment. Materials consists of 36 words (6 from each 6 categories) presented visually together as 6 blocks (lists) on one page; each block consisting of either instances of one category or randomly mixed instances of several categories. Condition A Condition B Apple Tulip Chair Apple Buttercup Cabbage Banana Buttercup Bed sofa Bed Giraffe Pineapple Rose Wardrobe Snake Cauliflower Wardrobe Orange Carnation Table Aeroplane Pineapple Lily Lemon Pansy Sofa Pea Elephant Motorbike Pear Lily Desk Carnation Pansy Lemon Dog Potato Car Ship Parsnip Lion lion Pea Bus Table Rose Chair Elephant Cauliflower Train Onion Desk Pea Monkey Cabbage Aeroplane Car Orange Bus Snake Parsnip Motorbike Tulip Monkey Dog Giraffe Onion Ship Banana Train Potato Instructions in a moment you will be asked to turn over the sheet of paper in front of you. On this sheet will be 36 words. You will have one and a half minutes in which to try and memorize all the words. After this period of this time the words will be removed. You must then immediately recall as many of these words as you can. Write them down on the piece of paper in any order you like. Results section should contain: Summary descript statistics comparing the two samples ( ie measures of central tendency nad dispersion, and perhaps graphs/charts) Summary of inferential statistics analysis by an appropriate test for the two independent samples ( e.g. Mann Whitney U Test ). The observed value of the statistic must be compared to a critical table value in order to determine its significance. Statement of the decision to retain or reject the null hypothesis will conclude the results section. Remember that both the raw data (individual scores) and all statistic calculations and formulae must appear in the separate Appendix (at the end of the report). They must not appear in the results section Appendix 3: Raw data Blocked by semantic category Participants Written free recall x/36 Blocked free recall randomly Participants Written Free recall x/36 P1 13 P2 30 P3 27 P4 26 P5 21 P6 22 P7 17 P8 21 P9 24 P10 24 P11 15 P12 25 P13 15 P14 28 P15 18 P16 19 P17 20 P18 15 P19 21 P20 27 P21 22 P22 21 P23 21 P24 26 P25 18 P26 17 P27 18 P28 29 P29 20 P30 23 P31 17 P32 33 P33 22 P34 21 P35 22 P36 23 P37 22 P38 29 P39 13 P40 20 Data of raw scores obtained from written free recall scores. Chart showing the two differences of mean scores between the two levels of the independent variable. The graph above shows the differences in mean scores for the two levels of the independent variable. The blocked by category condition showed that more participants recalled more words than the blocked randomly condition. Appendix 4 Full calculations of the Mann-Whitney U test Free -Recall Mann-Whitney U Test Blocked by Category Rank1 Blocked Randomly Rank2 N=20 N=20 13 1.5 30 19 27 20 26 13.5 21 13 22 8 17 5.5 21 6 24 19 24 11 15 3.5 25 12 15 3.5 28 16 18 8 19 3 20 10.5 15 1 21 13 27 15 22 16.5 21 6 21 13 26 13.5 18 8 17 2 18 8 29 17.5 20 10.5 23 9.5 17 5.5 33 20 22 16.5 21 6 22 16.5 23 9.5 22 16.5 29 17.5 13 1,5 20 4 R 1 = 210 Mann -Whitney U Test calculations U = N1 N2 U = 2020 + 400 + 400+210-210=400 N1N2-U = Uobs = (0) U = 400 = 400 400 = 0 Uobs = 0 = Ucrit = 138 = p =0.05 (1 tailed test) Since Uobs Reference: Runyon and Haber (1976)