Saturday, August 31, 2019

Existential Lit Final Paper Essay

Part I 1. In Thomas Nagel’s â€Å"The Absurd† (1971), he begins by addressing the standard arguments for declaring life to be absurd. The first argument he points out is the idea that nothing humans doing in the present will matter in the distant future, or as Nagel says, â€Å"in a million years† (Nagel 716). People believe that what they do now won’t matter at all in a million years, and that they are just one person living in the now that will soon be gone and will therefore not matter and don’t matter. Humans see this not mattering as a reason why life is absurd, since if nothing matters then the point of life is questioned. The second standard argument Nagel looks at is the idea that humans â€Å"are tiny specks in the infinite vastness of the universe† (Nagel 717). This idea focuses around space and time, and how individual humans only live for an extremely short amount of time in a tremendously vast universe. People see this as a reason why life is absurd, looking at their lives as such short increments of time, especially on the large scale of the universe. Since humans are so small and take up such little time with their lives, this is seen as a reason life is absurd. The third argument Nagel looks at is about not being able to justifying all of life’s activities, since humans could die at any moment and will eventually. People go through sequences in life, one thing leading to the next, to accomplish something each step of the way, and therefore it is justified. However, eventually, life must end, and the chain of sequences will be cut off in the midst of one of the activities, and therefore will end without justification. â€Å"All of it is an elaborate journey leading to nowhere† (Nagel 717). These are the three standard arguments for explaining why life is absurd that Nagel discusses. Nagel, however, disagrees with these arguments and finds each invalid for specific reasons. When looking at the idea that nothing humans do now will matter in a million years, Nagel objects this with the realization that it doesn’t matter now whether or not what we do now in a million years will matter or not. Whether what humans do now will matter in a million years or not is not important, because either way it wouldn’t change how people feel now. â€Å"If their mattering now is not enough to accomplish that, how would it help if they mattered a million years from now? † (Nagel 716). If now doesn’t matter in the future, than the future must not matter now, and therefore this explanation of why life is absurd is invalid. The second idea, focusing on life being absurd because of how small and short lived human’s lives are, is contradicted by Nagel’s idea that if humans were larger presents in the universe they’re lives would still be just as absurd and that if humans lived for longer, or forever, there lives would just be absurd for that much longer, or even infinitely absurd. This thought of humans as living for such a short amount of time and being so tiny in the universe is clearly not what makes life absurd, even if life is absurd. These facts, if anything, would make humans’ lives more absurd, if they were larger presents in the universe or lived forever then the absurd would be even larger or last for eternity. Therefore, this is not a valid argument in saying that life is absurd. Looking at the third argument, which focuses on death preventing the justification of human lives and its many sequences, Nagel shows that this idea is actually false as life does not consist of these sequences that all have purposes and continuous justification. â€Å"Chains of justification come repeatedly to an end within life, and whether the process as a whole can be justified has no bearing on the finality of these end-points† (Nagel 717). Many things we do in our daily lives are already reasonable and do not need further justification, such as taking aspirin for a headache, Nagel points out. However, even if someone wanted to further justify any of life’s activities, this further justification would also have to end somewhere, as all things must. â€Å"If nothing can justify unless it is justified in terms of something outside itself, which is also justified, then an infinite regress results, and no chain of justification can be complete† (Nagel 717). All reasoning must end at some point and must be accepted as it is instead of looking at it as incomplete, because if it is looked at as incomplete then reasoning is impossible. With Nagel’s profound contradictions to these three arguments, he shows that these are not valid reasons to say that life is absurd. 2. Though Nagel discards the standard arguments for stating that life is absurd, he nonetheless says that life can be seen as absurd, just for different reasons than the previous ones discussed. He states that life is absurd because of the clash between humans’ tendency to take their lives so seriously and the ability of humans to doubt these things which they take so seriously or view them as arbitrary. Humans take their lives seriously, as seen through the idea that many things are necessities for living and that humans’ actions, such as making choices, are very important. However, humans also are capable of seeing things outside of their lives, which then creates doubt about the things that are taken so seriously. This idea that human’s cannot live their live without this seriousness, yet can have a point of view outside of their lives that makes this seriousness doubtful, is why life is absurd. â€Å"It is absurd because we ignore the doubts that we know cannot be settled, continuing to live with nearing undiminished seriousness in spite of them† (Nagel 719). There is a clash between what people think is happening in life and what is truly happening, and because humans are able to have a point of view outside of their own life, they can see what is truly happening and therefore become doubtful of what they think is happening. However, they continue on with what they think is happening, or with this seriousness of life, even with the doubts from seeing what is truly happening. These two viewpoints, one within our own lives and one outside our lives, are both unavoidable yet clash with one another, and this, according to Nagel, is why life is absurd. Nagel states that humans take their lives seriously whether they live in a serious manor or not, and regardless of what their primary concerns in life are. â€Å"Human life is full of effort, plans, calculation, success and failure: we pursue our lives, with varying degrees of sloth and energy† (Nagel 719). Humans can reflect, make choices, question things, and decide what to peruse and what to avoid and who they want to be or become. This alone is signified, but when it clashes with humans’ ability to think outside themselves and survey this seriousness, it creates absurdity. â€Å"Yet humans have the special capacity to step back and survey themselves, and the lives to which they are committed, with that detached amazement which comes from watching an ant struggle up a head of sand† (Nagel 720). This ability to step back creates these doubts and questions about this seriousness life is taken with, doubts and questions about things that seem so sure before stepping back. Nagel explains: We step back to find that the whole system of justification and criticism, which controls our choices and supports our claims to rationality, rests on response and habits that we never question, that we should not know how to defend without circularity, and to which we shall continue to adhere even after they are called into question† (Nagel 720). According to Nagel, life is absurd not because humans are capable of this stepping back and reflecting on the seriousness of life, but because they then continue with their lives and taking them so serious even after doubts about the seriousness have been identified. 3. Nagel focuses on the idea that humans live absurd lives because of their self-consciousness, and therefore their ability to see themselves as humans and create this clash between seriousness and reality. With this, it can be said that God, all-knowing and self-aware, also lives an absurd life. The mouse Nagel refers to cannot have an absurd life because he is not self-aware, so he does not know he is a mouse and does not have the ability to reflect on this and create doubts about it. God, however, knows he is God and therefore has the ability to step back and have doubts. Being self-aware means that you doubt, and that every justification is doubted. This means that God, self-aware, doubts justifications, just like humans, and has an absurd life with the clash between these. When Nagel describes how the mouse’s life would be if he was self-aware, he says, â€Å"†¦ he would have to return to his meagre yet frantic life, full of doubts that he was unable to answer, but also full of purposes that he was unable to abandon† (Nagel 725). This sentence is applicable to God’s life being absurd, as God has a life full of doubts without answers due to his self-consciousness, but also has great purposes that he is unable to abandon, since he is the higher power that humans rely on. Also, like humans, God cannot refuse this consciousness, because to refuse it would mean he is aware of it, and it therefore he would already be self-aware. Since God cannot escape this self-consciousness, he is trapped, like humans, in this clash between his self-awareness and the seriousness that is taken with it and the doubt that comes with self-awareness where he reflects and doubts all justifications. This makes Gods life absurd, just like humans’ lives, as he too experiences the clash between self and reality. 4. Nagel stresses that absurdity is one of the most significant things that makes humans humans, and that it is essentially incurable. With this idea in mind, it can be seen that religion cannot cure the feeling of absurdity, and religious people live absurd lives just as all humans do. Humans’ lives are absurd because they have life goals and strive for things, which is the aspect of taking life seriously, but they also can step back and reflect on things and this causes doubts, which happens regardless of religion. â€Å"What makes doubt inescapable with regard to the limited aims of individual life also makes it inescapable with regard to any larger purpose that encourages the sense that life is meaningful† (Nagel 721). Believing in something larger does not allow escaping to occur, as it can be doubted in the same way that individual life can be. People use a higher being for comfort and to give their lives meaning and justification, however, as pointed out before, justifications end and humans no longer look any further. Moreover, religious people still have the humanistic qualities that all humans do that eventually lead to reflection and doubt. Another way of portraying religious people’s life as absurd just as nonreligious lives is to look at the idea of being self-conscious leading to absurdity and that this is a natural part of being human. â€Å"The only way to avoid the relevant self-consciousness would be either never to attain it or to forget it—neither of which can be achieved by the will† (Nagel 725). Religion does not change this unavoidable self-consciousness, and therefore life it still absurd with religion. The idea of religion is to provide meaning to life, however, if all humans are prone to this inevitable doubt, than this meaning will be doubted in the same way that life without meaning is doubted, or may even be doubted even more and therefore this creates a more significant contradiction, and may mean that religion makes life even more absurd. The gap between seriousness and reality is even larger in a life with religion because life is taken more serious, as there is this idea of more meaning, but still has the contradiction with reflection and doubt, hence a life with religion abets absurdity. Nagel’s main focus about religion is that it does not cure the feelings of absurdity because, regardless of being religious or not, humans cannot avoid this inevitable doubt of their seriousness, and therefore creating this clash which makes life absurd. â€Å"There does not appear to be any conceivable world (containing us) about which unsettlable doubts could not arise† (Nagel 722). Nagel’s idea about facing this absurdity is, rather than believing in something higher that gives life a certain meaning that does nothing but encourage absurdity, view life as ironic. He says to â€Å"approach our absurd lives with irony instead of heroism or despair† (Nagel 727). Heroism, as seen in religion, means to value life too much, whereas despair, seen in the depressed or suicidal, means to not value life enough or at all. However, to look at the absurdity of life with irony allows humans to live this contradicting life, aware of this contradiction, but continue to live it without denial, torment, or resentment. In Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot (1953), this concept of absurdity seen from continuing seriousness even after doubting it is portrayed. Vladimir and Estragon have chosen enslavement to an authoritative figure, Godot, and though they have yet to see Godot or even get confirmation that he will eventually come, they still continue to wait for him. This is the same idea that religion brings to humans, as they can live their lives without signs from God or true meaning from religion, yet they still believe because it gives them a sense of purpose. However, this creates absurdity because, for religious people, they also doubt all of this purpose and meaning they are waiting for, and for Vladimir and Estragon, they doubt Godot will ever come. Towards the end of the play, it is clear that Vladimir has doubt about Godot and has a realization that he has been waiting for a long time and will continue to wait, possibly for eternity. He has this realization and doubt about his seriousness for waiting, yet continues to wait. This clash is what makes Vladimir and Estragon’s lives absurd, and is the same clash that is seen in religious lives as well. 5. According to Nagel, atheistic existentialists, such as Sartre and Camus, dwell on and blame the fact that God doesn’t exist as the reason life is absurd. They believe that without God, our lives lack the meaning which they demand, and without this meaning our lives are meaningless, and therefore absurd. However, Nagel has already pointed out that this is not why life is absurd and that whether our lives have meaning or not does not change this clash between the seriousness which we take our lives and the reality that causes us to doubt the seriousness that is the true creator of absurdity. These atheistic existentialists view absurdity of humans’ lives as a problem, as something that needs a solution or to be fixed. Camus’ advice on dealing with this â€Å"problem† of absurdity is defiance. Nagel looks at Camus’ proposal, and says, â€Å"We can salvage our dignity, he appears to believe, by shaking a fist at the world which is deaf to our please, and continuing to live in spite of it† (Nagel 726). This, of course, will not rid our lives of absurdity, as this is not possible as long as we are self-aware and able to reflect, but Camus believes it will give humans at least a more fulfilled life. Nagel disagrees with these ideas, and says that the absurdity of human lives isn’t even a problem at all. He falls back on his idea that absurdity is one of the most significant things that makes us human, and humans’ lives are only absurd because they posses the ability of a kind of insight that other species do not. â€Å"If a sense of the absurd is a way of perceiving our true situation (even though the situation is not absurd until the perception arises) then what reason can we have to resent or escape it? † (Nagel, 727). Nagel says that it is important that humans are aware of this absurdity, yet do not try to avoid it as it is not possible to do such a thing and one will only dwell on this attempt their entire life. Instead, as mentioned before, Nagel suggests the only way going about absurdity is to approach it with irony. It is important to not let this absurdity become torturous, but is also crucial to not allow it to force an avoidance or attempt to surpass the absurdity. The acknowledgment of the clash between seriousness and reality is important in acceptance and living life in between heroism and despair. If humans can look at their absurd lives with irony, the absurdity will be acknowledged, but will not effect their lives as to cause anything actually problematic from happening. Nagel also states that this absurdity is important because it exposes our human limitations and allows humans to understand these, so there is no reason to try to escape this. Nagel’s argument helps make sense of these atheistic existentialists’ works. For example, in Camus’ The Stranger (1942), the ending is very clear because Camus didn’t believe in the idea of approaching absurdity with irony, so he did not end his book like this, and instead ended it with Maurseult approaching the absurdity with the dramatic feeling that Nagel discourages. Maurseult is unable to find irony in his absurd life, and blames God’s nonexistence for his inability to justify morals. It is clear that this happens because these are Camus beliefs, and Nagel portrays these as making a problem out of absurdity that shouldn’t be a problem at all. Jean-Paul Sartre, also an atheistic existentialist according to Nagel, falls back on the idea that existence proceeds essence, and in that way humans achieve absolute freedom. However, this idea is contradicted by Nagel when he says that humans are born into absurdity and there is no escaping it, as it would have to have been never attained or forgotten, which is impossible to do if its part of humans from the start. Nagel’s ideas about absurdity, such that it is unavoidable yet not necessarily a problem, contradict these atheistic existentialists’ ideas, and he ends with he belief that contrary to what these existentialists say, humans must approach their absurd lives with irony, because if nothing matters, than it wouldn’t matter to do anything other than this. Part II a. â€Å"Existentialism Is a Humanism†, by Jean-Paul Sartre (1946), focuses on freedom as the bases of morality. Sartre defends existentialism as being a moral philosophy by contradicting arguments against this idea with his own thoughts. The first idea that Sartre rejects is that which claims existentialism allows people to â€Å"dwell in the quietism of despair† (Sartre 1). In his argument against this he focuses on the concept that existence proceeds essence, where humans first exist before anything else, such as defining themselves. â€Å"Man simply is. Not that he is simply what he conceives himself to be, but he is what he wills, and as he conceives himself after already existing—as he wills to be after that leap towards existence† (Sartre 2). This is what Sartre refers to as the first principle of existentialism. The next idea Sartre argues against is that existentialism is a pessimistic view, however, he says that existentialism actually reflects severe optimism. He gives the example of the way an existentialist looks at a coward and sees him as personally responsible for being a coward, as something he chooses and commits to, which is an optimist way of looking at such a thing. Sartre then looks at the idea of subjectivity, which is argued as a negative aspect of existentialism as it is seen as living a solitude and therefore selfish or egotistical life, and conveys two meanings for â€Å"subjectivism†. One meaning he points out is the freedom of an individual, and the other meaning refers to man unable to further himself beyond human subjectivity. This is a further look at existence proceeding essence, as it shows that humans do not choose being human but they do choose their actions after becoming humans, and by choosing for one’s self, one chooses for all humans. This shows, therefore, that existentialists view humans as not individuals whom are selfish, but rather that their actions speak for all humans. The last argument Sartre rejects is that existentialism denies reality and the seriousness of humanity. However, according to Sartre, existentialism is humanist when looking at a fundamental definition of the word. â€Å"Man is all the time outside of himself: it is in projecting and losing himself beyond himself that he makes man to exist; and, on the other hand, it is by pursuing transcendent aims that he himself is able to exist† (Sartre 13). Existentialists believe that there is no human action that doesn’t have an explanation, and if an action has an explanation it is human. These ideas portray Sarte’s position that existentialism is a moral philosophy and that it is a humanism. However, his ideas are not enough to make this statement. He focuses deeply on the idea of freedom and that because humans are free as seen by existentialists, existentialism is a moral philosophy. For existentialism to be completely moral, however, it would have to compliment Sarte’s idea of freedom with other values, such as charity, kindness, and serving our duty to the world and others, as this is what is truly moral and humanitarian. Complimenting freedom with something else though would take some freedom away and therefore his idea of the moral system being based on freedom is invalid. One example Sartre provides to express this idea of freedom being the basis for existentialism, and the reason it is moral, is about a man facing a moral dilemma. He must choose between either staying with his mother, whom has been abandoned by everyone else in her life and only has this one son left, or leaving her, alone and empty, to go join the Free French Forces. He looks at this as a moral dilemma, however, this is not a moral dilemma because both choices are good. A moral dilemma is one where an individual is faced with two options and picks the one which is good and leaves the other which is not good. However, whether this man stays with his mother or goes to fight for a cause, he is choosing between two goods and therefore is not making a moral decision. Sartre also looks at the idea that existentialism leaves you uncertain and that all moral decisions operate with a degree of uncertainty. This, to an extent, is true, and it is not wise to base decisions on certainty of the future. However, there are actions that are possible, and should be, taken based on their consequences. For example, the question of whether one should push another individual off an enormous cliff seems very certain. It is true that life is uncertain, but there is quite a high chance that that individual, if pushed off the cliff, will fall and die. The immediate and certain consequences seen in life are not mentioned and are ignored in Sartre’s moral system of existentialism, and therefore is not enough to make this claim. Sartre focuses on this idea that freedom is what makes existentialism a moral philosophy, however, true morality limits freedom, and there is so much more to morality than what Sartre mentions. b. Ivan Ilytch and Meursault both experience an epiphany at the end of their lives, and therefore die as happy men. Both men lived selfish lives, unaware of what life truly was about. They both lived under an idea of what they thought was the right way to live, with Ivan attempting to live a normal life, fitting into society, and Meursault living a life in effort to embody the universe. Both of these life styles were structured and allowed the men to just follow guidelines which they believed was the right thing to do. However, this was selfish as it led to them ignoring the rest of the world, such as their families and other aspects of true happiness. Meursault went through life seeing it as meaningless and therefore claims he believes in nothing. However, the fact that he in so deeply devoted to this meaningless shows that he believes in this meaninglessness. This becomes clear when Meursault is talking to the priest and realizes that his uncertainty was just as strong as the priests certainty about everything, and when he says that the priest was living like a dead man he realizes that it was really him who was doing such a thing. Meursault comes to terms with the fact the he so deeply believes that nothing matters and life is meaningless, and in doing so he looses his temper and becomes emotional and passionate about something for once in his life. This same insight about realizing that life is not so structured and that it is about existing and having fulfillment is seen in Ivan when, as he is laying on his death bed, he becomes aware that there is no goal in life. He spent his whole life chasing something, but finally realizes that this is not what life is about, as he already had things in his life that could have given him fulfillment, such as his family. As he looks at his son and is overcome by this realization, he is finally happy. Meursault also was pursing something in life, that of embodying the universe, but he too sees that this is not what life is about. Soon before he dies, he really sees the world for the first time in his life, the smells and sounds that it holds, and is happy. He even thinks about his mother and shows a side, lacking selfishness, that he had never shown before. With this thoughtfulness, as well as recognizing that nothing matters and there is no meaning, he finally gives himself the fulfillment that life is truly about and feels happiness. c. In Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot (1953), two men wait for an authoritative figure to appear and convey a message, telling them what to do and what to live for. This is a constant part of society, where humans continue â€Å"waiting† and spend their entire lives hoping the universe will tell them something. The play symbolizes this human waiting and longing for something more in many ways throughout it. Estragon cannot take his shoes off, symbolizing that he is stuck on earth and nothing can be done as he cannot escape. Vladimir looks at his hat, as if to find something in it that tells him something or gives some sort of sign, but finds nothing and continues to gaze at the horizon, which holds hope and something more than this life they’re stuck in. However, as trapped and unhappy as they are, as they even considered suicide, they do not give up hope. In fact, they decide against suicide because they must wait for Godot to come and see what he offers, and then they will decide what to do from there. Vladimir and Estragon cannot stop their wanting to live as they want to live for something, so they are hoping that Godot will give them something to live for, even though he already is just from the hope that he might come. They have lost track of time and are unsure of whether they were here yesterday, as waiting tends to make people lose track of time since it is just what humans do and is inherent in our human condition. In metaphysical time, it is always just now, and waiting is eternal. When two new characters enter the scene, Pozzo and Lucky, the main characters become puzzled. Lucky, who is seemingly not so lucky, carries Pozzo’s bags for him, but he never puts them down, and he obeys Pozzo’s every command. Vladimir and Estragon wonder why this is, and why Lucky even puts up with Pozzo. Lucky, however, is not much different from Vladimir and Estragon, as he just seeks authority. He wants this enslavement, where he is told what to do and think and how to live. Vladimir and Estragon have their own symbolic bags that they too refuse to put down, as seen through their choice to continue to wait for Godot, with no one telling them they must wait but it being their own decision to do so and continue to do so. When Vladimir and Estragon find themselves worried that Pozzo wants to get rid of Lucky and leave him behind, it symbolizes that they too are worried of being left behind by Godot. This constant desire for authority is something seen in this play as well as in society, as humans are very frightful of being alone or without someone to tell them what to do or how to live. Though Vladimir and Estragon’s decision to wait is questionable, it does however give them something to do and comes from a command from authority. As mentioned before, though Godot isn’t there, Godot is still ruling over them and gives them the authority that is so desperately sought for. This enslavement to Godot seen in Vladimir and Estragon is actually rather admirable, as it shows their devotion and commitment. The patience seen in their servitude conveys their faith and religious spirit. It brings them hope and a sort of comfort to continue this faith and commitment. When the boy comes the second time to deliver Godot’s message, Vladimir seems to know that the same thing happened yesterday, and that it will continue to happen, but he still continues to wait. The boy does not tell Vladimir that he will convey his message to Godot and does not give Vladimir his desired recognition that this is real, and Godot has not shown up, yet Vladimir and Estragon still continues to wait and do not lose hope. This idea that they are not just existing as humans but are devoting themselves to this higher authority shows that their existential journey leads beyond existentialism, as they continue to wait by choice but are being controlled by the idea of something more.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Use of a Thrust Stage in Ruby Moon

The texts studied in class, Matt Cameron’s Ruby Moon prove to have great potential for being performed on a thrust stage. When presented with a space such as this, it allows the director to be exposed to a vast array of ideas, conventions and concepts that would not be effective on a proscenium arch stage. Through this space, the director is able to break through all traditional styles of classic shoe box theatre; creating a unique experience for the audience as opposed to just a spectacle.It cracks open wide the expressions, notions and insecurities of the text and the characters, exposing a physical sense of vulnerability and weakness. By placing audiences on three sides of the space evolves the concept of many people peering into the lives of both Ray and Sylvie (Ruby Moon). It enforces the concept of the audience being given the opportunity to experience this fractured fairy tale or very real circumstance within a theatrical scenario.Furthermore, this space enables the aud ience to be engulfed in the style and absurdist, gothic, fast-paced and heart wrenching Ruby Moon. Many may be turned away from the idea of political theatre/ Brechtian but when placed on a thrust stage, the texts still obtain the same concepts and dramatic meaning, however elements of drama such as tension, space, contrast, mood and audience/spectator relationship are magnified; focusing more on the conventions of the play as opposed to just the messages.Theatrical elements such as costume, set and lighting also have the opportunity to be re-worked and re-invented to cater for the space. Ruby Moon delivers a series of quirky characters that Ray and Sylvie visit along the street of Flaming Tree Grove. Incorporating the style of transformational acting. Read also:Â  Moon By Chaim Potok

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Analysis of Infinity Games

You are to complete the following task in the order given:   Task A: Carry out user and task analysis. You must have a clear view of the users of this system. Consider that not everyone is comfortable with the technology. For example, you need to deal with user variation such as age or language skills. Perform a user analysis, i.e. characterise the users and identify your potential users. Clearly identify the tasks the potential users perform, and in what order. These are all user interface design considerations that you should take into account.   Task B: Propose design and system requirements. Consolidate your findings from your user and task analysis with the given specifications into a design and system requirements. For example, the number of items to display, the screen size, what colours, how many different screens to display etc.   Task C: Develop a low-fidelity prototype using Storyboard (a minimum of 4 screens). Based on the above requirements, develop a preliminary design of the web user interface. At this stage, the prototype is basically a medium to support your initial concept and ideas. For example, the prototype should show where the ‘Business Hour’ button is located or would it be possible to fit 20 images aesthetically on a single page, etc? You can use paper-based (e.g. paper and colour pencils etc.) or screen based (e.g. painting software) to sketch your design. Low- fidelity prototyping is mainly to allow designers to produce alternative designs expediently without having to go into depth or functionality. Think of low-fidelity prototyping as the 5D tool for: design, draft, decide, discard and do-over.  Ã‚   Task D: Obtain user feedback. Invite 3 – 4 potential users (e.g. friends, family members, classmates, etc.) to provide you with feedback of your low-fidelity prototype (your storyboard). Carry out the evaluation according to prescribed methods as in Chapter 4 of your textbook (Shneiderman & Plaisant, 2010) or from other scholarly source. Use appropriate survey techniques. Analyse the data you have collected from the user evaluation and refine and improve on your initial design.   Task E: Develop high-fidelity prototype based on the user test feedback and recommendations from Task D. The high-fidelity prototype should be a reasonably complete version for the Infinity Games website and does not need to work as a complete website. A minimum of 4 screens should be produced in correspondence to your Task C storyboard. High-fidelity prototype must be computer-drawn and any drawing software is acceptable.   Task F: Write a report. Produce a report to document the tasks and the outcome of your efforts undertaken for the project. Remember, this report is intended for your employers. You need to document and support the viability of your website – that is, to convince your employer that your webpage design is satisfactory and that it meets user acceptance test.   The analysis has been done for the website which is related to infinity games. The website is just a simple and static website which describes the shop layout and the products present in the shop. So, the analysis has been done so that improvements may be done in the website. Different opinions have been taken from different types of users belonging to different age groups, different occupations. It has been analyzed whether the design of the website is adhered to the principles of design or not as bad design is always unpleasant and disturbs the visitors on the website.  Ã‚   The website has been designed to help the customers who have interest in the games, toys or playing cards. This website is designed for gaming business and users who like to visit the website lie in the age group of 15-60 years. The website has been designed with so much simplicity and it is user friendly as anyone can access or understand it easily. All of the design principles for a website are followed in this website. The pages of the website are similar to each other in terms of the background. According to the principles of design, any copyright notice should be kept at the bottom of the website. In this website, copyright notice has been kept at the bottom only as per the design principles. The color of the content should be proper and clear so that user does not find difficulty to read the content of the website. So, color chosen for the website is simple and good which does not affect the user to create complexity. According to the principles, navigation layout must work pro perly i.e. the links should navigate to the proper webpage. Navigation has been done properly in this website. The website has been designed with the use of high quality images and efficient textual description (Wirtz, Jakobs &   Ziefle, 2009).   Tasks in a particular sequence that are usually performed by the users are as follows: This is the first task which is performed by any user. User loads the website by typing the url in address bar or by searching the website on any search engine. This is a very simple task and sometimes varies in terms of duration. Next task to the loading is Reading as user reads the information he sees after loading and checks whether he/she is surfing the right website or not. By reading the information on the loaded main page user is able to understand about the type of website he/she is surfing. This task is also much simple.   This is the third task followed by reading in which user actually starts browsing what they are looking for. For e.g., for this website user looks at the different products on different WebPages and start comparing them on the terms of price, features or compatibility. This task may be performed by the user as many times user wants. This task of navigation gets automatically started once the browsing gets started. Navigation is basically done through links, buttons, menus, actionable items etc. Navigation is easy for those who keep on visiting various websites daily but difficult to understand for those who have little knowledge about computers. The website should adhere to the following design principles:   It should be ensured that the window of the browser should not contain scroll bars, instead only one window should be displayed. It should be kept in mind that all kinds of advertisements, pop-ups and multi level windows should not be opened, their use should be avoided. Navigation to any page should be displayed in bold letters. It should be understandable by the visitor that where he/she is at presently. So, use of navigation must be proper. Menus having drop down hierarchies should be avoided. It is important that the relevant types of graphics must be used. Animations in the website should be used when it is needed, else it should be avoided. Images should be put in the website with the alt tags. Icons used in the website should have a specific meaning and can be identified easily. The content written for the website should be simple and understandable to every visitor. Important information should be highlighted with bolded letters. There should be a clear difference between the links which have been visited and the links which have never been visited. The links which have been visited must be displayed with some other color than the actual color of the link so that it can be identified that it is a visited link. It is to ensure that there should be proper spacing between the names of the links so that they do not over-clutter with each other. It should be kept in mind that the colors which are dark and loud should be avoided for background purpose as there are so many kinds of visitors, the old aged visitor may feel difficulty to read content on the dark colored background. Similarly, the content of color should be kept sound to the background i.e. there should be a good contrast between the color of background and the color of the content so that content might remain readable for all visitors.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A good website always must have a feedback form in the contact us page so that visitor may leave their feedback and the improvements must be made in the website accordingly.   User Acceptance Test has to be done for the website so that designers must know how can be website accepted by the users and if there are any issues, how those issues are to be solved. One of the efficient methods to perform User Acceptance Test is to take feedback from the different users and accordingly bringing up the news ideas and thoughts for the website. So, for this website User’s Feedback has been taken by asking them different questions which are as follows:   Therefore, on the basis of the above questions, feedback has been taken from three different users which is described in the next section. Feedback has been taken from three persons who belong to different occupations and different age groups. Feedback of those three visitors has been described as follows: Person 1 is a 62-years retired professor who is living his life on the pension income. He hardly has knowledge about the computer use. He hardly uses internet, if he does so, he uses it for news and Wikipedia purpose. Since he has little knowledge, so he can also access the simple websites, complex kind of website confuses him. His experience with this website is good as the website has been designed with so much simplicity. So, he did not feel difficulty and could easily surf the site. He rates the website as 8 on the scale of 1-10.   Person 2 is a 19 year old college going boy and usually completes his assignments by surfing on the internet. Therefore, he has a good knowledge about computer and so internet. He may handle even the complex sites as he is aware of navigating the links and browsing the website. When this website was given to him for review, he could easily point out that the website is about gaming business as he has a lot of interest in gaming and all. He told that the website looked so simple and understandable that he got to know about every webpage so easily. He felt that the website should have more of multimedia things and content to make the website look more attractive and catchy. He rates the website as 7 on 10.   Person 3 is a 45 year old homemaker who is graduated but does not earn money. She did not have much knowledge about the computers, but her son taught her the basics of computers and Smartphone. So, now she used to access many of the health related websites, recipe related websites, social networking websites such as facebook or instagram. She used to access the internet daily for 2-3 hours. When the website was given to her, she understood clearly that the website is about playing cards, boards games or toys but she was confused that these products can be bought online or not. She felt the site looks like ecommerce site. So, she recommended that if the website would contain ecommerce features, she would have taken the help from her son or someone else to buy some games. She said that website might look more beautiful and innovative if it becomes more colorful (Darejeh &   Singh, 2013).   Three walkthrough scenarios have been taken for the website considering the home page, contact page, and product pages. Walkthrough scenarios are as follows: As person 1 has little knowledge about computers, so probably he might not make use of navigational menu. But person 2 and 3 used the navigation map to navigate to other webpage while person 1 just used the navigational menus on the top to navigate to the other webpage. Person 2 has also little knowledge of computers but she used to increase her pace as if she is adapted to the websites.   This is a simple walkthrough that might take time from 40 seconds to 1minute. Person1 did not complete this walkthrough while person2 hardly took 25 seconds to complete the walkthrough and person 3 could complete it but took time of around 1 and half minutes. This walkthrough scenario is bit different from the previous scenario and usually takes 1 minute to get complete. Person2 took around 40 seconds to get this walkthrough done while person 1 took around 3 minutes to get this done as he was not aware of going back to the homepage. Person 3 completed this walkthrough in around 2 minutes but she had to reload the entire session for returning to the homepage as she was also not aware of going back to the homepage (Axelsson, 2012).   In this report, principles of the design play a great role in determining the efficiency of the website. It is considered that if website follows the design principles, then the website has good interface else the bad interface leads to the unpleasant impression on the website. This analysis has been done by taking various feedbacks from various visitors so that designers might know where the improvement is required in the website.  Ã‚   Axelsson, A. (2012). Consistency in Web Design from a User Perspective. Bhaskar, N., Naidu, P., Babu, S. and Govindarajulu, P. (2011). General principles of user interface design and websites.  Int J Softw Eng, pp.45--60. Darejeh, A. and Singh, D. (2013). A review on user interface design principles to increase software usability for users with less computer literacy.  Journal of Computer Science, 9(11), p.1443. Wirtz, S., Jakobs, E. and Ziefle, M. (2009). Age-specific usability issues of software interfaces.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Medicare and Medicaid Module 4 ( Case) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Medicare and Medicaid Module 4 ( Case) - Essay Example Eligibility to this program is mainly based on the levels of income. Families which fall under the income earners receiving less than sixty percent below the poverty level are liable to receiving Medicaid (Hill, 2006). In addition, pregnant mothers also receive Medicaid as they are in need of prenatal care assistance that is often immediate. The same program also covers children up to 18 years. Medicare on the other hand is meant for disabled individuals, those with problem s, those in need of long term care and those above 65 years. Medicare as a program has been divided into two components; one component applies to those citizen s who require inpatient care, those in need of hospitalization as well as other hospital services. The other component covers medical supplies, outpatient care and special needs for individuals who are disabled. Over the years, Medicare has undergone remarkable changes in terms of changing economics, demographic, health care system and technologies in an effort to meet the needs of the dynamic society. In current times, Medicare has emerged as a vital financial protection base for more than 38millions Americans who are old together with disabled individuals inclusive of their families. The program has not stopped at that as it promises to extend its protection to each and every individual in future. This has made most Americans to appreciate the fact that without Medicare program, a good portion of what they enjoy as their retirement income would have to be set aside for health care payment. So far, the program is regarded as being a success. This can be seen in many sectors with a good example being the health insurance coverage on older Americans where in the early 1960’s it had managed to cover only half of the older population and more so some who were lucky to be covered receive d coverage that was very limited. At that time,

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Comparison of Desk Suit with Chest of Drawers in Relation to Essay

Comparison of Desk Suit with Chest of Drawers in Relation to Surrealism - Essay Example The essay "Comparison of Desk Suit with Chest of Drawers in Relation to Surrealism" analyzes similarity and contrast of two paintings. The paper provide a comparison of Desk suit (1936) with Chest of drawers (1936) in the context of surrealism. Surrealism was a cultural and literary movement that promoted the automatic and creative thinking among members of a society. The two painters were among the major proponents of the cultural and artistic movement. Their two paintings are therefore fundamental in fostering the growth of the ideologies at the time. In the first section will be discussed Salvador Dali’s painting and in the second will be discussed Elisa Schiaparelli’s painting. / The painting is an artistic masterpiece that embodies the dictates of surrealism. The painting of a human with his bodies partitioned by drawers is a representation of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Art is a cultural product that often criticizes and represents the society. Sigmund Freud developed unique ideas of psychology that remains essential to the study to date. As such, Dali borrowed his ideas at the time to visualize the dictates of his ideologies. The artistic painting is an imaginative representation of Freud’s unique psychology that assets that the human body consists of platonic. The separate drawers represent the various secrets that a human keeps all of which are accessible only through an effective psychoanalysis as proposed by Sigmund Freud. The painting is unique as it communicates to a specific audience.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Information Technology Malware Management in the Enterprise Essay

Information Technology Malware Management in the Enterprise - Essay Example Every business or an enterprise ought to follow this classic approach with the â€Å"just-on-time† feature that entails malware information assessment and handling (IATAC, 2009). Background Malware problems are ever growing and continue to be a nuisance for computer users. Manufactures of malware programs have continued to increase over the years and by 2010, there were 14 million different malware programs recorded. An astonishing 60,000 sections of malicious code was being discovered every single day. A rather recent work known as the Koobface surfaced, its purpose was to target people on social networks and it’s created profited by making 2 million dollars in one year. A worm known as the Mariposa has been known to create the largest network of zombie machines on the entire planet. Experts, despite making their best efforts, could not calculate its exact size however they were able to pinpoint the number of computers that became infected by Mariposa which was over 12 million. What the worm did was drop spyware that stole susceptible information from the individuals who suffered, which includes bank account numbers and credit card credentials. This idea was completely planned by a solitary hacker in Spain who happened to make a blunder by chance that uncovered him and he was arrested (Milosevic, 2010). Forms of Malware Web attacks are counted amongst the foremost subtle and dangerous ways cyber criminals use. For instance, if you are searching any sites which may seem good and harmless but at the backend they are uploaded with various harmful malware which secretly get downloaded in the browser’s PC. It can happen as such that cyber criminals square measure all their probabilities and then they frame a hijack process. Mostly the advertising banners on these sites are used for such reasons hence it is extremely important that enterprises must place security barriers between the company’s system and internet arrangement (Baloch, 2011 ). Other forms within which malware can be formed include: Botnets Instant electronic messaging Phishing tries Skype malware Gaming malware Redirects If an administrator fails to execute an immediate action once he/she has recognized the entry of malware, then it can be ascertained that a door has been opened for criminals to siphon personal information from the computer. In the fight against the malicious software system, it isn't enough to treat individual infected machines. Enterprise Strategy for fighting Malware Too often, organizations create the error of treating malware infections as a series of irregular occurrences. Anytime a bug is discovered, IT merely cleans up or rebuilds the affected host and the whole system moves on with routine operational tasks. Nonetheless this approach does not permit the enterprise to stay up with progressively aggressive and innovative attack techniques used by malware authors. It is this time when management needs to take corrective action to bypass malware defenses, evade detection, and resist efforts to get rid of it (Zeltser, 2011). In fact, combating malware whether it is a big or a small enterprise atmosphere requires locating suspicious programs on servers and workstations and then executing the strategy for removing them. However it can also be done in the manner to conjointly investigate the areas infected and detecting the departments which interfere with the utilization of malware on the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Mental Health Promotion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Mental Health Promotion - Essay Example Moreover, results achieved by exercising these activities have also been critically evaluated in the light of evidence-based supports. In order to ensure confidentiality the author has supposed the patient name as â€Å"Tomas†. The Data Protection Act (1998) states, â€Å"Nurses must protect patient’s privacy and Confidentiality.† The NHS Plan (2000) highlights that confidentiality must be ensured during a patient’s assessment. According to NMC (2008), ensuring a person’s confidentiality gives you respect. Mental health is the emotional resilience which enables us to enjoy life and to survive pain, disappointment and sadness. It is a positive sense of well-being and an underlying belief in out own dignity and worth (Health Education Authority, 2000). Mental Health Promotion has a wide range of health and social benefits including increased emotional resilience, improved physical health participation, higher productivity and greater social inclusion (Department of Health, 2001). Cattan and Tilford (2006) looked at mental health promotion as the process of enhancing the capacity of individuals to take control over their lives and improve their mental health. It uses strategies that foster supportive environments and individual resilience, while showing respect for equity, social justice, interconnections and personal dignity. Mental Health promotion is an umbrella term that covers a variety of strategies, all aiming at having a positive effect on mental health. Health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being, and not only the absence of disease or infirmity. The Department of health (2001) described mental well being as being influenced by many factors including genetic inheritance, childhood experiences, life events, individual ability to cope and levels of social support, as well as factors like adequate housing, employment, financial security and access to appropriate health care. Mann, et al (2004) consi dered the focus on self-esteem as the core element of mental health promotion and the fruitful basis for a broad spectrum approach. According to Department of health (2001) mental health promotion works as three levels relevant to the whole population. Individuals are strengthened through the promotion of self-esteem, life and coping skills for example, communicating and relationships. Communities are strengthened, through increasing social inclusion and participation, improving neighborhood environments, developing health and social services which support mental health. Standard one of the National Service Framework for mental health aims to ensure that health and social services promote mental health and reduce the discrimination and social exclusion associated with mental health problems (Barker 2003). According to the National Service Framework (NSF, 1999) standard one mental health promotion states that health and social services, should promote mental health for all, working w ith individuals and communities, The NSF was put into place to ensure quality and the standard of care throughout the service. NMC (2008) states that nurses have a duty to care and support people in caring for themselves to improve and promote their health. In order to deliver this care an understanding of mental health and mental health pro

Aristotle and Plato on Realism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Aristotle and Plato on Realism - Essay Example When Aristotle and Plato are contrasted, it becomes clear that their efforts were largely responsible for the inclusion of metaphysical inquiry into Western philosophical thought. Both philosophers provided highly differing views on reality and the way it could be conceptualised but this does not serve to indicate that their views were altogether opposed to each other. Instead, there are fine lines where both Plato and Aristotle tend to agree and other areas where they tend to disagree. This paper will explore areas where both philosophers tend to agree on the domain of realism. Plato held that the ultimate reality behind an object were notions or concepts of that object. He argued that things in the physical world are merely abstract representations of various kinds of universal concepts. It could be argued that Plato thought that in order to understand reality it was necessary to approach the world of various ideas. This method of interpreting reality has been labelled as Platonic realism where ideas are given greater preference to the physical object in ruder to perceive reality. Plato also holds that the true nature of reality revolves around the idea that abstract universals create the physical reality. However, there are limitations on perceiving these universals because in effect these universals have no spatial or temporal characteristics that could be realised or tested. In his treatise on the issue, Plato has argued that all physical objects have some kind of a universal form. These universal forms exist outside the realm of these objects but one cannot perceive these universals. The object in question can be physically observed such as by visual observation and this could be enhanced by studying the object in detail to form concepts about it. This would in turn allow the object under scrutiny to develop a physical reality based on concepts and notions of universals that support its existence. In order to support the ideas behind and the existence of universals Plato rested his argument on a few other elements. These elements included the principles of self-predication, one over many and non-self partaking. When these ideas are put together, they tend to culminate into a greater understanding of Platonic realism. Furthermore, these ideas tend to serve as the bedrock and foundation for Platonic world of forms and in effect for Plato’s conception on reality (Bakalis). When Aristotle’s ideas on reality are considered, it can be said that his conception of reality differed from that of Plato but not very significantly. Aristotle’s conception of ultimate reality is not as highly differentiated from Plato’s realism as is often projected in texts. The bedrock of Aristotle’s ultimate reality is based on instantiated universals while the basis for Plato’s realism is un-instantiated universals. Much like Plato, Aristotle held that the universal form of any physical object is not removed from the o bject itself. Instead this kind of existence is used as predication for the existence of the object under question. In addition, Aristotle also held that the form of the object under question did not exist in a separate mystical world held by Plato but instead it existed within the existence of that object itself (Jackson). The Platonic world of forms is where Plato believed the form of an object to exist. However, Aristotle held t

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Java Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Java - Coursework Example The extends keyword indicates that the class is a child of class JFrame and represents an inheritance relationship. Implements keyword is essential while using an interface for it indicates that all the methods used in the interface must be declared with the signature declared in the interface declaration in this case ActionListener. The ActionListener implements event handling. We therefore go ahead and declare all the components of the form. Note that the programmer must be able to pre-visualize the desired form before putting down the code for creating it. Also it is worth noting that for neatness all the controls are placed within panels named Jpanel. Public static void main (String [] args) is the start point of every Java application of which every application must have one and only one method named main without which the application will not execute. The void keyword indicates that the application will not return any information. class ordermenu extends JFrame implements ActionListener declares a class that inherits from JFrame and implements ActionListener which detects user action such as clicking typing, pressing enter or any such action that the programmer my desire to capture. As in the other two classes we declare the controls we intend to place in the form such as JButton, JRadioButton, JTextField, JCheckBox, JComboBox and the JTextArea followed by variable declaration. public static void main(String[] args){ method constructs the required frame (form). The frame.pack()function causes the window to be resized to fit the preferred size by automatically adjusting its height and width. It is in this function that we now place all the controls that we had declared earlier in the desired position. As previously stated we place the controls within panels for better organization. Also note that since a panel is a container we can have panel within another panel. While adding controls into a panel, we use the add() function. Ideally every

Friday, August 23, 2019

Argument of Evaluation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Argument of Evaluation - Essay Example "The Artist† truly deserves the award it scoped as the ‘Best Picture’ movie during the 2012 Oscars. The movie leaves its audience with real pleasure in the way Hazanavicius makes use of tics and trick of silence together with care and wisdom. He goes further to include musical emotional rhythm emulated from some of the best movies ever witnessed. "The Artist† fluctuates between sad and funny and changes the sound age dawn into an individual tragedy presented to the audience as silent melodrama (Scott 3). The nostalgia used in the movie is instructive as witnessed in the scene where Valentin and Miller are seen tap-dancing on each other sides reminding the viewer of the visually inventive of how early films developed on sound could be. The other scene is when Vlanetin has a conversation with a policeman without title cards reminding the audience of the good silent movie it is. Such scenes call for a lot of imagination from the viewers hence they are fully involved and absorbed in the movie (Bradshaw 4). It is a miraculous form of entertainment that unexpectedly expresses a good deal about the pride of men and emotional literature. The final film of ‘the Artist’ was released in the year 2011making it one of the most joyful and heart-swelling silent movies and was screened in white and black, projecting it in an old fashioned Academy ratio boxy. Some of the lines in the movie are observed to be occasionally printed on dialogue intertitle cards. â€Å"The Artist† is places among the long tradition group of movies and it revolves around a film star who is established together with a young actress who is beguiling coming from the early Thirties and late Twenties Hollywood (Bradshaw 4). This was the period which was marked by the talkies rise. As the settings and pilot of the movie bring out the scenery of singing in the rain, the movie pulls in a different direction to Donen and Kelly’s sonically and visually screen music that

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Life Is What You Make It Essay Example for Free

Life Is What You Make It Essay It When thinking about my view of the world, there is a jumble of different philosophies, beliefs, and ideas going on in my head. There is so much to take into consideration, and it seems that everything is connected but also scattered in a way that it is hard to really be able to dig deep and explain on paper what my worldview is. After many headaches and deep thoughts, I boiled it down to the things that I could not get out of my head. No matter how hard I tried, I could not get rid of these thoughts when thinking about what to say. These key parts of my worldview are that I believe in the theory of evolution and the big bang theory, not that God created Earth. I believe there is not a higher figure that determines where you go when you die. I also believe in a person’s right to make choices regarding their own life. Although my values and beliefs may have been shaped from the people around me, I feel that I have values and beliefs that are truly my own and are not what other’s want me to value and believe in. One of the first things that comes to my mind when hearing the word worldview, is my view on whether or not there is a god and an afterlife. When I was a baby, I was baptised in the Catholic church,but I do not attend church on a weekly basis, and never have. Because of never going to church, I have very little knowledge of the Bible, and the beliefs of Catholicism. Having this little knowledge about religion versus the facts that I have learned in science class makes it very easy for me to believe in the scientific theory of evolution. I have a hard time believing that God created Earth and all its creatures, and even that there is a God. Which leads me into my view on afterlife and how you get there. I believe that there is somewhere you go when you die. I do not believe that you just rot in the ground. However, I do not necessarily think that it is heaven and hell, but I’m not quite sure what it is yet. As far as getting to the afterlife, I do not believe that there is one figure deciding where you go when you die based on the way you lived your life. Since my values were not based on religion, I believe in the freedom for a person’s right to choose regarding their life and death. Abortion, assisted suicide, homo and heterosexuality are all examples of the freedom of choices that I believe in. I think people have the right to make their own choices regarding their personal life, without the judgement from God or even other people. Another very strong value that I have is that I think it is wrong to judge someone based on their skin color, religion, body type, sexuality and even the opinions they have. I think that it is right to abide by rules and laws. If the majority of our society did not follow the laws that we have, America would be in chaos. I like the idea of a democracy, that everyone who wants a say gets one, but yet there is a group of people who keep society organized. In my opinion, my values, beliefs and what I think is right and wrong have been shaped from different influences. Obviously, the first influence came from my parents. Growing up in their household has definitely shaped my beliefs. For example, my parents taught me to abide by the rules given to you. But there are also some things that I do not agree with my parents on. For example, my father thinks being gay is wrong, I strongly disagree with that. Another factor influencing my values and beliefs is my peers. My values resemble my closest friends’ values and beliefs and because we have common views and that is why we are so connected. I grew accustomed to their values and beliefs because of being around my friends so often. In conclusion, my worldview is that there is no higher figure that determines your fate during life and when you die. Each individual personally has the right to make choices regarding his or her own destiny in life. I believe that my knowledge from science classes taught me that the Earth was created because of a big bang in the universe which is more powerful than my knowledge of how God created Earth and it’s species. My values and beliefs are truly my own, yet they would not be the same if I did not have the guidance and knowledge from my parents and peers.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Sales promotions

Sales promotions In the United Kingdom, most of the companies that are known as the big advertising spenders allocate more money on sales, promotions than advertising. Due to the movement towards relationship marketing and integrated marketing communications, growth of direct mail and increasing cost, advertising lost its dominant importance over other communication mix in last two decades. The ratio of advertising budget against promotions budget is 30:70 (advertising: promotions) which was 60:40 in 1990s in UK (Kotler, 1997). This fact underlines the importance of sales promotions. However, sales promotions fail to be successful unless they are clearly targeted, well communicated and original. Companies can use sales promotions for different purposes such as: increasing a particular products usage, improving sales of existing product, retaining and rewarding loyal customers and helping to introduce new products, data capturing. Depending on the time and the way that these sales promotions methods are employed, they could be tactical or strategic tools (Pickton Broderick, 2001). More often sales promotions are used as tactical tools to have short term outcomes- for example, as a response to competitors activity or improving the sales of a product or service. Alternatively, some sale promotional techniques can be combined with customer relationship management programmes which seek more strategic and long term approaches (Hackley, 2005). For example, free samples and contest entry forms are used to capture customer information in order to create a customer database which adds value to business as importance of direct database marketing is rapidly increasing. Furthermore, cus tomer retention programs and rewarding loyal customers with sales promotions assist to create a brand loyalty over long run. Mintels (2008) report discovered that high street pubs and bars spend more money on sales promotions than any other communication mix. Particularly with the effects of credit crunch, reluctance of spending money on alcoholic drinks and night-outs made it indispensible to lower prices or add extra value through sales promotions to lure potential customers. This is one of the most important reasons why sales promotions became very important in bar industry in recent times. In order to retain customers, some bars and restaurants started to give price cuts, 2 for 1 offers and meal deals. To respond to competitors move and overcome the reluctance of spending money on entertainment, other bars and restaurants also used sales promotions. This current economic climate created a great opportunity for bars and restaurants to gain competitors customers by the way of using sales promotions to bring customers in to experience their service. If they can make good use of the opportunity, those cust omers can be loyal customers. Marketing communications are vital for a companys success. Regardless what product or service is offered by an organization, messages should be sent to potential customers through marketing communication methods. In most cases, combinations of those methods are used in marketing plan. Product life cycle is a tool that helps managers to plan their communication mix. Sales promotions can be employed in each stage of a product or services life cycle. Sales promotions help to strengthen the messages that are sent through advertising, public relations and other promotional activities. However, their purpose of use depends on what stage they are used. In introduction stage, they tend to encourage potential customers to try the service in order to create awareness. In growth and maturity stages, the main aim of the sales promotions is to build brand loyalty and reinforce the messages (Varey, 2002) that are given in introduction stage and increase the usage of a product or service. More in d epth uses and analysis of product life cycle will be discussed in chapter 2 and chapter 4. Pitcher Piano, a bar chain with branches located throughout the UK and owned by Marstons Public Limited Company, is one of the many bar chains which emphasise the importance of sales promotions by employing these tools as both a tactical and a strategic tool very often. There are three types of sales promotions: customer sales promotions, trade sales promotions and employee sales promotions (Wright, 2000). This study will mainly focus on customer sales promotions. The purpose of this research is, by using relative literature on the topic and with the help of primary data, to examine the usage of customer sales promotions and the methods and discover whether these methods are used to influence a service or brands performance in bar industry in short term or long term. 1.3 Brief Background of Pitcher Piano Pitcher Piano is a bar chain with branches located throughout the UK. Since 1996, the brand operates as a part of Marstons Public Limited Company. The first Pitcher Piano was opened in 1986 in Fulham. When Pitcher Piano Fulham opened its doors to public, it was one of the first wine bars in the UK. This new wine bar concept was an alternative to traditional British pub culture. The concept became very popular and over time other brands like All-Bar-One, Slug Lettuce emerged. There are 27 Pitcher Piano bars around UK now. Recently, company decided to sell some of their branches in London in order to focus on the branches where the venues are owned by the company and that are profitable. Main competitors of Pitcher Piano are All-Bar-One, Slug Lettuce, Grand Union and Living Room. Pitcher Piano bars offer a wide range of wines, spirits and beers as well as party snacks and food. Even though Pitcher Piano bars all operate under the same brand name each bar has its own strengths tailored to the customers demand in the area. While some are led by food sales, others are renowned for their party atmosphere and drinks. Hence, individual branch has its own promotions which are decided by house general manager depending on their customer base and target. In 2004, to help government to tackle increasing binge-drinking related crime, along with some of other pub groups, the company decided not to consider Happy Hours or similar promotions campaigns (Evening Standard, 2004). However, heavy competition, current economic climate and plans for creating customer database for direct marketing pushed the company to use sales promotions methods again. 1.4 Rationale of the Chosen Topic During the current economic climate, most companies use sales promotions to encourage recession-hit people to spend money on their products and services. In this context, the bar industry is one of the most interesting industries since the priority of entertainment lost its place to the primary needs such as satiating hunger. Therefore, it caused bar industry to employ sales promotions as tactical tools extensively. Particularly, in bar industry, heavy competition made it compulsory to use sales promotions in order not to lose customers to other bars at the same time attract competitors customers. Furthermore, having worked in bar industry for five years, out of which 4 years in Pitcher Piano, the researcher has gained knowledge and understanding of various usages of marketing communication mix, particularly, sales promotions in bar industry. This experience also helped the researcher to observe how the company reacts to internal and external changes. Even though sales promotions are common tools employed by marketers as a tactical weapon, it has become more complex and also interesting for the researcher to analyse them during the current economic climate within bar industry. That is the main reason why the topic, which is to examine methods of sales promotions employed by Pitcher Piano and analyse effects of these methods on the companys performance, was chosen to. This research will help the researcher to gain a valuable knowledge about marketing the communication mix and more importantly, sales promotions. 1.5 Aims and Objectives of Research The main aim of the research is to explore different methods of sales promotions, when and where to use appropriate methods, either as a strategic tool or tactical tool, and understand their pros and cons in the hospitality industry. In order to understand the methods, this research will evaluate the above mentioned bar Pitcher Piano that use sales promotion frequently. In this context, the objectives of this research can be described as follow; To find out what kind of sales promotions used by Pitcher Piano, To evaluate the outcomes of the employed sales promotion techniques, To assess the effectiveness of the given methods and suggest areas in need of improvement where necessary, To analyse the use of sales promotion in the context of tactical or strategic tools. 1.6 Significance of the Study This research provides several significances such as; This research will provide information to marketers on the uses of consumer sales promotion in bar industry and help them to have an understanding of some of the consumer sales promotion methods. This research can help other researches on this particular topic, sales promotion and related topic. In general, the usage of sales promotion amongst all communication mix is rapidly increasing, particularly in bar industry, in the UK. However, sales promotion always perceived as a supporting activity of advertising and public relations. Many academics underlined its efficiency of achieving short term goals. Nevertheless, its long term impacts have been ignored. Although the debate is on-going whether sales promotions are strategic or tactical tool, in the context of question industry examined in this research, they can be specifically interpreted as strategic tools in such activities as building customer database, encouraging trial use and repeat purchase. 1.7 Brief Structure of the Study This study consists of 5 sections. Each section includes some explanations and opinions to help enlightening the subject matter. This study attempts to find out the uses of customer sales promotion in bar industry and whether these promotions are employed as tactical or strategic tool. Chapter 1: This chapter contains the introduction on the changing nature of sales promotion within promotion mix and a brief view on related models and topics. This chapter also includes the usage and the importance of sales promotions in brief and succinct background information about Pitcher Piano. Finally, aims and objectives, rationale and significance of the study are covered in this section. Chapter 2: In this chapter, all current and related topics are examined. Different opinions that have been expressed by academics on strategic uses of sales promotion are discussed. Furthermore, various consumer sales promotion methods, communication methods in service industry, importance of sales promotions in direct marketing and usage of product life cycle for promotional mix are explained with the help of existing vast literature on these topics. Chapter 3: This chapter explains the methodology that is employed by researcher while doing this research. Approaches of the researchers and the methods adopted to collect and analyse the primary data are critically argued. Finally, shortcomings which are faced by researcher in the research process are included in this chapter. Chapter 4: This chapter represents the analysis of the data collected and the findings of this research. In this chapter, it is also focused on that to what extend the findings are related to the literature review. The researcher also Chapter 5: This chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Conclusions are made with the help of literature review, analysis and the primary data. Recommendations were given to bar industry to advise on the strategic use of sales promotion methods. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This section will attempt to explain the current argument on the topic and present different views by academics. It will help to understand concepts and models relating to sales promotion in the context of question as well. However, the usage of these models and concepts in practice will be related in data analysis section with the help of observed examples and primary data. 2.1 Sales Promotions 2.1.1 Sales Promotion and Current Debate on Sales Promotion Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix along with advertising, personal selling and public relations. Sales promotions which, are also known as below the line promotions, are methods that are used by marketers to attract consumers. Sales promotions have been in use in trading for a long time. Shopkeepers and stallholders had been employing on the spot offers to convince people to purchase a product (Mullin and Cummins, 2008). Sales promotions are, traditionally, defined in the most textbooks as activities such as deals, discounts, coupons, loyalty programs, refunds, contest, sampling and special displays that are encouraging the target audience to act in a particular way by reducing the perceived value of the product being promoted usually to achieve short term goals (Fill, 2006; Pickton and Broderick, 2001). According to Institute of Sales Promotion (2004; cited in Yeshin, 2006, p1), sales promotion is defined as a planned and implemented marketing activity that both enhances product and service appeal and changes customer behaviour positively in return for an additional benefit for purchase or participation. Lamb et al. (2004, p323) also interpret sales promotion as generally a short run tool used to stimulate immediate increase in demand. Most definitions underpinned the immediate encouragement to buy the product and service at the time. Nevertheless, the definitions do not convey the same message whe ther it has short term or long term effects. Most of the definitions above agree that sales promotion is a short term tool. Similarly, Shimp (2000, p508) considers that sales promotion has a short term nature by stating that in contrast to advertising, which typically, though not always, is relatively long term in orientation and best suited to enhancing buyer attitudes and augmenting brand equity, promotion is more short-term oriented and capable of influencing behaviour (rather than just attitudes or intensions). Fill (2006, p635) is another supporter of this school of thought. He believes that just as advertising seeks to work over the long term, sales promotion can achieve short term upward shifts in sales. When comparing advertising and sales promotion, Kotler (2008, p85) underlined that whereas advertising offers a reason to buy a product or service, sales promotion offers reasons that would achieve immediate sale. However, Yeshin (2006) opposes to the views stated above and claims that objectives of sales promotion have dramatically changed in recent years. Wilmshurt and Macay supported Yeshin (2006) by stating that companies have increasingly realized, however, that whilst sales promotion has tactical uses it has strategic implications (2002, p211). According to Gupta et al. (1997 cited in Yeshin, 2006), many empirical researches have focused on identifying short-term effects of sales promotion. Thus, most practitioners and, in particular, academics failed to see long term effects of sales promotion. Schultz et al. suggested that sales promotion can be strategic by stating sales promotions are marketing and communications activities that change the price / value relationship of a product or service perceived by the target, thereby generating immediate sales and altering long term brand value (1998, p7). Kotler and Armstrong (2008, p502) suggest that in general, rather than creating only shor t term sales or temporary brand switching, sales promotions should help to reinforce the products position and build long term customer relationship. In addition, they (Kotler and Armstrong, 2008, p.502) claim that if properly designed, every sales promotion tool has the potential to build both short term excitement and long term consumer relationship. Mullin and Cummins (2008) believe that a good sales promotion should prompt a customer to consider a product or service and help them to make a decision after the promotion campaign. Brassington and Pettitts (2003, p720) definition covers all the characteristics of sales promotion. They believe sales promotion is a range of tactical marketing techniques designed within a strategic marketing framework to add value to a product or service in order to achieve specific sales and marketing objectives. This extra value may be of a short-term tactical nature or it may be part of a longer-term franchise-building programme. Finally, Boone and Kurtz (2001, p509) noticed the shift in the usage of sales promotion in recent years by stating that today, however, marketers recognize them as integral parts of many marketing plans, and the focus of sales promotion has shifted from short-term to long-term goals of building brand equity and maintaining continuing purchase. They supported their argument with frequent-flyers programs that can create a base of loyal customers. It should be noted that sales promotion is a great tool to get immediate affects. However, sales promotions capability of creating a long term affects should not be ignored. While the debate, whether sales promotion is short term or long term, is still on-going, the use of sales promotion has increased enormously in last two decades. Smith and Taylor state that the importance of sales promotions over advertising have been increased because of various reasons which are; a)the movement towards relationship marketing, b) the growth of direct mail, c) the emergence of promotion-literate consumers who expect promotions with certain product types, d) during recessions, price-conscious customers search for value-for-money promotions, e) powerful retailers favour suppliers whose products sell quickly, f) high television advertising costs force marketing managers to look for more cost effective below-the-line tools. (Smith and Taylor, 2004 p. 356) Even though they are widely used by many companies, some academics disagree to use them extensively. Many of them underline the facts that extensive and repetitive promotions of a product can damage the brand value, sales and cash flow (Schultz et al., 1998). 2.1.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of Sales Promotions Each communication mix can accomplish a certain objective that other elements cannot (Burnett and Moriarty, 1998; Shimp 2000). For example, advertising cannot change a product or services sales trend in short term however sales promotion can. What sales promotion is capable of accomplishing; Motivate sales force to sell a new, improved or mature product. When personal selling methods becomes boring and monotonous, exciting sales promotions can stimulate sale forces enthusiasm and make the job easier for them (Shimp, 2000). Stimulate sales in maturity stage of a product or service. By changing price / value relationship, it can encourage more people to use a product or service (Schultz et al., 1997). Counteract a competitors communication campaign. Competitors advertising and sales promotion campaign can be neutralized by using counter sales promotion campaigns (Shimp, 2003). Encourage consumers to try a new service or product (Fornell et al., 1985). When a product or service is being introduced into the market, it is very important to encourage people to experience it (Mela et al., 1997). Consumers would not know if the product or service is high-quality unless they try it. Many consumers would not try a new product without any sales promotion activity. Retain existing customers through repeat purchases. Sales promotion can be used to prevent existing customers to go to competitors. Shimp, (2000, p516) states that strategic use of sales promotion can encourage at least short-run repetitive purchasing. Besides short-term repetitive purchasing, continuous sales promotion programs such as loyalty card scheme encourage customers to repeat purchase. Reinforce the messages given with advertising and public relations campaigns. Sales promotion can be a main tool for an organizations communication plan. However, it can also help to emphasise messages given with any other communication tools (Burnett and Moriarty, 1998). Help to build a customer database. The importance of direct marketing is increasing. In order to build a database to contact consumers directly, sales promotion are used to capture their contact details. Some sales promotions require customers to provide their details in return of a free products or discounts (Mullin and Cummins, 2008). What sales promotion is not capable of accomplishing; Inability to change opinion about an undesired product or service. Consumers would not purchase a product or service if they do not like it. Sales promotion usually will fail to help to compensate a low quality product or bad service (Boone and Kurtz, 2001). Unable to compensate for poor advertising. Sales promotions cannot fix a problem caused by weak brand image or lack of brand awareness. It can help in the short run. However, it is unrealistic to expect a good result in long run. Sales promotions can have negative effects on long term (Jedidi et al., 1999). If sales promotion is used repeatedly, it can create confusion on perceived value of a product or service. Thus, customers would not buy the product or service once the promotion is over and wait for the new promotion. 2.1.3 Consumer Sales Promotions and Methods According to Fill (2006), sales promotions are used for various reasons such as reaching new customers, reducing distributor risk, rewarding behaviour, retention, adding value and assisting segmentation. There are three types of sales promotions depending on who they target: consumer sales promotions, trade sales promotions and employee sales promotions (Srinivasan and Anderson, 1998; Wright, 2000; Fill, 2006; Boone and Kurtz, 2001). The focus of this study will be on consumer sales promotions, as it is mentioned in Chapter 2 and on discovering what types of sales promotions methods are used by Pitcher Piano and whether they are tactical or strategic. Pickton and Broderick define consumer targeted sales promotion as pull promotional activities designed to encourage demand by end-customers that will pull products through distribution channels (2001, p539). Objectives of sales promotion and analysis of whether the objective is strategic or tactical are given in the Table-1. Consumer targeted promotions are used for improving sales of existing products, encouraging repeat purchase, trial of new products and brand loyalty, giving a response to competitors move and capturing customer database information. There are different tools of consumer targeted promotions. The most popular and widely used ones are sampling, couponing, premiums, money-off, bonus-packs, prize draws and refunds. However, Pitcher Piano uses sampling, premiums (2 for 1s, 3 for 2s), money-off and contests and sweepstakes more often, for example, last summer, Pitcher Piano customers could win Bacardis global music festival tickets on completion of registration forms (Appendix 1). Price-offs offer consumer discount on the regular price of a product. They are used to accomplish different objectives. They can be used to reward the existing customers. In this case, price-offs collaborated with loyalty card schemes (Hobbs and Rowley, 2008). Another use of price-offs is to encourage consumers to stockpile the product. It is a good way of pre-empting competitors. Those customers who stockpiled the product are out of marketplace until they consume the product. They would not buy competitors brand during that time (Shimp, 2000). Price-offs can be offered to customers on a specific time of the day. For example, happy hours in pubs and bars is a good example of it. The objective behind is that to pull the customers inside the venue at slow periods to increase volume (Reid and Bojanic, 2006). Combination offers or bundling are one of the most popular methods that are employed by restaurant and bar industry (Kotler et al., 1996). Two or more products or services are combined together and offered on a price that would be more if they are purchased separately. Such examples are restaurants 3 course meal deals, two for one deals and drink and meal at a specific price deals. Premiums Premiums are products or services that are offered free or at relatively low cost when buying a product; such as buy a meal get the drinks free or purchase this meal and get a baseball cap free (dAstous Jacob, 2002). Premiums are typically given to consumers as a reward for behaving in a particular way, usually visiting a store or buying a product or service (Burnett and Moriarty, 1998). They can also be used to add value to product and represent an advantage over competitors products (Pickton and Broderick, 2001). The main target of premiums is to encourage the trial of a product. There are two types of premiums which are direct premiums and mail premiums. Incentives are provided at the time of the purchase with direct premiums. Direct premiums can be given to customers in the store, be placed with the package, be inserted in the package or the container itself can be the premium (Yeshin, 2006). Mail premiums require consumers to provide a proof of purchase of a product or service before being handed. Some of the mail premiums are given free after the customer sending the proof of purchase and some requires customers to save a specific number of coupons or special labels (Burnett and Moriarty, 1998). Sampling Sampling means offering standard or trial-sized samples of a product for free or at a reduced price in order to either create an awareness of a new product / service or increase the consumption of an existing one (Shimp, 2003). Sampling is usually used to aid when a new product or service is launched. Although it is very effective, it is the most expensive way of introducing a product or service. If the consumers are not targeted properly, the losses can be big (Kotler et al., 1996). Thus, companies should avoid giving samples to consumers who would never purchase the product or service in future. Samples are widely used in hospitality sector as well (Reid and Bojanic, 2006). Some restaurants and bars offer samples of their potential customers or people whose opinion is respected in the area. One of the reasons for that is to create a positive word of mouth about the service. Coupons Coupons are the legal certificates by manufacturers that offer customers discount when buying a specified products (Schultz et al., 1998). They can be mailed or emailed (direct mail), given with newspapers, magazines or with another product. According to Kotler et al. (1996), coupons are very popular in restaurant and bar industry. Srinivasan and Anderson (1998) suggest that the value of the discount should be decided very carefully. If the face value is low, consumers are reluctantly to redeem the coupons. However, if the face value is raised, more people redeem it on a price lower than they would have redeemed. Moreover, excessive uses of the coupons can make customers feel they are getting poor value, if they purchase the product or service without a coupon. Contests and Sweepstakes Different forms of competitions such as contests, sweepstakes, prize draws, where they can win a prize without having to spend extra money, are used in order to attract customers (Boone and Kurtz, 2001). This kind of competitions creates an excitement amongst consumers. A sweepstake is a sales promotion technique where customers are required to submit their names and e-mails in a drawing in which they have the chance to win cash, trips or a product or service. The winners are determined purely on the basis of their luck (Egan, 2007). Because of its low cost comparing with other methods, simplicity and ability to accomplish a variety of marketing objectives, the usage of sweepstakes have increased recently (Shimp, 2000) Contests are also another technique for sales promotion. Unlike the sweepstakes, in order to win a prize, contestants compete with others on the basis of skills or ability (Fill, 2006). They are usually asked a contest problem or proof of purchase. The winners are sele cted by judges. Regardless the type of sales promotion, all the sales promotion campaigns should go through an ethical consideration. Consumer oriented promotions such as coupons, contests and premium offers fail to be ethical if the consumers are promised a reward for acting in a certain way wished by promoter and the reward is never given (Shimps, 2000). For example, contests that are making people believe the winning odds are high when they actually are not or lowering the quantity or quality of a product or service when they are on promotion and advertising it as normal. Consumers can also be guilty of unethical behaviour. For example, filling coupons with fictitious names and addresses in order to get the reward. 2.2 Marketing Communications and Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Marketing communication is an important aspect of an organizations overall marketing mission and key determinant of its success. Marketing communication is the process of reaching and acknowledging target audiences about a product or service. According to Thomas and Housden, there are four main objectives of marketing communications which are to initiate a relationship (prospecting), to develop the relationship into a sales transaction (conversion), to maintain the relationship (loyalty building) and to resurrect a lapsed relationship (re-activation) (2002, p13). Companies apply different approaches and methods in order to communicate with their target audiences. Advertisements, salespeople, store signs, point-of-purchase displays, product packages, direct-mail marketing, publicity releases, sponsorships, sales promotions are all various forms of communication devices for marketers (Shimp, 2000). All these devices are used to create awareness or to promote a product or service. Any activity that an organization is involved in can deliver messages to their consumers. These messages can either be planned or unplanned. Planned messages are sent to consumers through communication mix. Unplanned messages would include all other communications such as store cleanliness, distributors, employee attitudes and the exterior surroundings of your business, in other words, any elements related with the company that are capable of delivering implicit messages. For example, unfriendly bartender, dirty glasses in a bar, untidy back bar can all deliver negative messages that can have more impact than all the planned marketing communication messages (Burnett and Moriarty, 1998). The term marketing communication mix and promotion mix from 4Ps of marketing mix are used interchangeably in existing literature. Therefore, they are also used interchangeably throughout this research. In 1980s, many academics and practitioners treated each communication tool as separate and distinct. This approach, sometimes, could create some confusion for customers. For example, messages from advertising campaign could fail to match with the messages from public relations campaign, since the sources of the messages were different. Thus, this could give two different messages to consumers about the same product, servic

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Teacher Misconduct Cases

Teacher Misconduct Cases Abstract Where do we draw the line between acceptable and unacceptable behavior for a teacher? District policies on conduct have been notoriously vague so as to give the district the necessary leeway to judge a broad range of potential behaviors that may fall under the umbrella of misconduct. Unfortunately, what we find with this is that line is so undefined that good teachers may believe they are conducting themselves appropriately only to find that their private conduct off school grounds can land them in hot water and cause them to lose their jobs or teaching licenses. To further complicate matters, school districts may have different definitions of moral behavior based on the personal experiences of those who are applying the law. I will illustrate in my paper how society has changed over the years about what it views as immoral and what it views as acceptable. Some of the conduct that I will be discussing in my research paper will cover activities that, had the teachers carried them out in a different time, would not have been regarded as breaches of moral code and that the attitudes toward their behavior are purely the result of social constructs that are subject to change as society changes. What constitutes as bad behavior may, in certain, cases may be colored by the perceptions of society. What we considered appropriate in the past, such as whipping the hands of small children with a ruler in the classroom, would be regarded as abuse today, and the teacher could possibly be brought up on criminal charges for such an offense. Dan Coleman writes in his article, Rules for Teachers in 1872 1915, that teachers were not permitted to leave their homes between the hours of 8:00 pm and 6:00 am, and could not engage in any social activities other than those sponsored by the school or the local church. Male teachers had restrictions on how often they could court a woman and female teachers were not even allowed to be courted by a man, or even to be married (Coleman). Rules were so restrictive that it was not uncommon to lose teachers in the middle of the school year. According to an article One Room Schools, published by the Clark Library in Michigan, one district had employed n inety-nine new teachers in their one-room school house over a period of eighty-six years (Boles). Teacher conduct can indeed be very harmful to the children theyre charged with teaching, and there is something to be said about expecting that teachers will conduct themselves appropriately in public, where students or parents may be watching. But throughout our history as a nation, we have held our teachers to a higher standard of morality and, as evidenced in the article above, high turnover rates and reluctance to enter the teaching profession may be the result. Our society has recognized this flaw and has taken steps to ease off of prying into the most private aspects of our teachers personal lives and shift focus from what or who our teachers are as individuals, to how they perform as teachers and how they conduct themselves in the classroom and, to a lesser extent, in public. Morrison v. State Board of Education Marc S. Morrison was, in early 1960s, a typical American man with a wife and a job. Mr. Morrison carried a General Secondary Life Diploma and a Life Diploma to Teach Exceptional Children in the state of California and he was employed as a teacher in the Lowell Joint School District in Whittier, California. According to an article written by J. Tobriner for the Stanford Law School Library, Mr. Morrison maintained his employment with no record of complaints or misconduct in the classroom and only a minor incident which regarded his conduct outside of the school. His record reflected that he was a near perfect employee until he was asked to resign in 1963 over a brief romantic encounter with another man. During his employment at the Lowell Joint School District, Mr. Morrison had befriended a fellow teacher, Fred Schneringer, who was also married at the time. In response to a period of financial stress that Mr. Schneringer experienced in 1963, Mr. Morrison offered his council and support to his friend. This resulted in an emotional closeness between the two men that ultimately led them down a more romantic path in their long-time friendship. The two men engaged in what was described by Arthur S. Leonard in his book, Sexuality and the Law: An Encyclopedia of Major Legal Cases, as being pseudo-sexual in nature, likely limited to cuddling or even self-gratification in one anothers company. There was no evidence or testimony to support that actual homosexual acts had been performed (Leonard). Bear in mind that in the State of California in the 1960s, homosexual activities were legitimately illegal, and regarded as immoral on a social level. If a teacher engaged in illegal or immoral activ ity, the school board would be justified in looking into the case and potentially revoking the teaching certification on the grounds of criminal activity or immoral behavior, but Mr. Morrison was never arrested for homosexuality, and he carried out his actions in a private setting with what he believed was a trusted partner. Legal or illegal, Mr. Morrison was ultimately forced to resign from his teaching position when Mr. Schneringer reported the incident one year after the fact to Mr. Morrisons supervisor. Over a year and a half after his resignation (two and a half years after the incident), the Lowell Joint School District had received notification that the incident had occurred with a former teacher, and they sought to revoke Mr. Morrisons life diplomas for his immoral and willful homosexual acts. (Tobriner) Mr. Morrison took the school district to court of the matter and the Supreme court of California ultimately ruled that the Lowell Joint School Districts policies specified that the conduct worthy of revoking certification was limited to immoral acts which render the teacher unfit to teach. Mr. Morrison did not repeat his homosexual behaviors, did not engage in criminal homosexual acts, and his personal sexual leanings -which he did not further act upon- did not render him unfit to teach. For that reason, the school boards order to revoke Mr. Morrisons diplomas and certifications was vacated and Mr. Morrison retained his diplomas (Tobriner). Pettit v. State Board of Education In another court case in California, Elizabeth K. Pettit was an elementary school teacher in Los Angeles from 1957 until her arrest in 1967, which resulted in her pleading guilty to misdemeanor charges in connection to an act of indecency. According to an article in the Stanford Law Library, in 1967, Pettit and her husband had applied to a private swingers club in Los Angeles, California for the purpose of engaging in sexual acts with different partners. The club involved a formal application and approval process for the purpose of protecting club members from the public eye (Burke). On December 2, 1967, the Pettits attended a gathering held at the private residence of one of the members of the swingers club. Also in attendance that evening was a Los Angeles police detective, Sergeant Berk, who had gained admittance to the club under false pretenses and was conducting a sting operation to catch and arrest party goers who were engaged in acts of indecency. Sergeant Berk witnessed Mrs. Pettit performing oral sex on three different men other than her husband, in the full view of many spectators. She was arrested and charged with three counts of criminal oral copulation, but pleaded guilty to a lesser, misdemeanor offense of public indecency and was fined and placed on probation (Burke). Mrs. Pettit was dismissed from her teaching position and stripped of her teaching certifications. She sued the school board to have her certifications reinstated, arguing that the precedent set with the Morrison case, as mentioned above, provided precedent that sexual conduct, when engaged privately, should be disregarded when determining the fitness of an individual to teach children. The courts did not see the Pettit case as being similar enough to the Morrison case to warrant its consideration because it was ruled that Mrs. Pettit did not necessarily maintain a totally private sexual life as Mr. Morrison did, and she did engage in sexual activities that were illegal in the state of California. Additionally, Robert Willet writes in his 1973 law review, Unfitness to Teach: Credential Revocation and Dismissal for Sexual Conduct, that it was revealed in the trial proceedings that Mrs. Pettit and her husband had participated in two televised interviews in which they donned masks and sp oke frankly about their non-traditional sexual lives. In spite of their efforts to disguise themselves, Mrs. Pettit was recognized by a fellow teacher and the school officials were notified. Mrs. Pettit was judged to have engaged in illicit sexual activity and immoral behavior and this rightly gave cause to the school board to revoke her teaching certification (Willett). In todays social climate, it may seem irrational to intrude on the private sexual affairs of a teacher, especially when those affairs were intended to be kept private. The Pettit and Morrison cases display uninvited and unwelcome intrusions into the most private aspect of a persons life. Mr. Morrison and Mrs. Pettit took care to conceal their immoral acts from the public view, and were victims of conservative social values being applied in obtuse ways to their careers as teachers. American values have since changed, and while many may view these cases as being gross breaches of privacy, in the midcentury American era in which they occurred, these teachers did indeed violate the ethics code established by their school systems. Attitudes over social morality change over time and I could see that very plainly when I challenged myself to find modern cases of teachers getting fired for their private sexual affairs. I found a handful of cases where teachers had the unfortunate experience of being terminated when their private sex tapes were sent to parents or posted on the internet against their wishes, but overwhelmingly, I found that my search results were dominated by instances of sexual discrimination in Catholic and Christian private schools. One instance that stood out was a case reported by the Montana Standard in which a Catholic middle school teacher who is a lesbian, was fired from her position in Butte, Montana because she had become pregnant (Montana Standard). After teaching at the school for 10 years and having a satisfactory performance record, Ms. Shaela Evenson received notice that she was being terminated after she had announced the happy news of her pregnancy on Facebook. In posting her news, she revealed to parents and students that she had become pregnant out of wedlock and would be an unmarried mother. This is not in keeping with the morality standards outlined by the Central Catholic School District in Montana, and as such, Ms. Evenson was marked as a teacher who has engaged in conduct unfitting for an educator for this particular school system. There are so many instances of blatant teacher misconduct where children are placed in danger or influenced negatively by an educator. With all of these bad teachers in the school system, can we really afford to alienate good teachers whose primary offenses are being different and engaging in counter-culture behaviors in their own private time, away from the school and the children? By and large, our culture is moving away from dictating the private lives of our teachers, as we can see a clear progression from the policies teachers were held to in the 1800s, when the minutia of their personal lives was scrutinized, through a period of time when teachers tested the boundaries of the moral clauses of their contracts and fought for ground in the pursuit of freedom to maintain the private life of their choosing. I believe the hard-earned ground these teachers fought for the 1960s is providing the foundation for teachers today to be allowed to live their lives as they see fit. The social change that has taken place will help citizens maintain a barrier and have respect not to pry into a teachers personal life. This will especially come into play when teachers have the unfortunate experience of having embarrassing media publically posted without their consent. We cannot support an environment that demonizes teachers and allows people to launch witch-hunts to ferret out any teachers who, behind the privacy of closed doors, enjoy their lives on their own personal time. References: Coleman, Dan. (n.d.). Rules for Teachers in 1872 1915. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Boles, Frank. (1998). One Room Schools. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Brady, Josie. (n.d.). Education in the 1800s. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Tobriner, J. (n.d.). Stanford Law School Robert Crown Law Library. Morrison V. State Board of Education. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Leonard, Arthur. S. (2013). Sexuality and the law: an encyclopedia of major legal cases. New York, NY: Routledge. Burke, J. (n.d.). Stanford Law School Robert Crown Law Library. Pettit V. State Board of Education. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from Willett, Robert. E. (1973). Unfitness to Teach: Credential Revocation and Dismissal for Sexual Conduct. California Law Review, 61(6), 5th ser. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Montana Standard Staff (2014, August 23). Teacher fired for pregnancy sues Butte Catholic schools. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from