Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A successful analysis of an opening to any novel can not occur without taking into consideration what sort of journey the author is going to take their audience on. Openings can be deceiving and the point of close is needed to successfully determine the true meanings behind the foundations that the author lays at the start. This is definitely the case in Coetzee's Foe. Hindsight is the analysists greatest ally when looking in detail at the devices and subtext that Coetzee is employing to open this novel. In opening it appears to begin as an alternative story of Daniel Defoe's classic, Robinson Crusoe. However as the novel unfolds it becomes clear that it is an allegory for many pressing issues of today's society such as gender, race, politics and power. But not stopping there Coetzee has also created a piece of metafiction attacking the way in which fiction is created. It can also be seen as an attack on the claimed father of the novel Daniel Defoe. With hindsight all these issues can been seen in Coetzee's opening however I will begin by giving some ideas as to what Coetzee possibly wanted to achieve from the entire novel as it will help shed light upon the structure, devices and meanings that lie in the opening. Coetzee is questioning realism in novel writing, throughout he is proving that, just as Defoe did, he can create realistic characters and setting but he is showing that he too has the power to destroy them. As a piece of metafiction, Foe looks inwardly on its self as a novel and questions itself throughout. Coetzee creates things just to break them down. He is out to prove that Defoe and other authors are, as Paula Burnett described, Ã¢â¬Å"the giver of false witnessÃ¢â¬ and in effect the enemy of reality thus the title and pun Ã¢â¬ËFoe'. The attack is on Defoe, the so-called Ã¢â¬Ëfather of the novel', perhaps because he tried to sell Robinson Crusoe off as a real life biography. Coetzee is trying to show that even if Crusoe was real the writer of the novel he would still hold the power to create and destroy what the want to, so fiction can never be taken as reality. The key central issues in the novel are the themes of gender and racial difference and power. Throughout the book there is a strong feeling that Friday represents a lot more than just the slave of Robinson Crusoe. It is through Friday and his treatment in the hands of his white masters that Coetzee is addressing the way the white people have handled there relations with the Negro race. Coetzee probably wrote this particularly with South Africa in mind as it is where he is from but it can be related to any time in history when the whites have tried to help or enslave the black race. Through Susan Barton he also addresses women and their struggles for equality and recognition. A feminist reading of the text would to claim that Coetzee in providing a narrator is showing that the novels has Ã¢â¬Ëmothers' as well as fathers such as Defoe and Fielding. Also, her struggle to establish herself as the main character of the story and the only true story teller can be seen to represent women's struggle to establish themselves as credible novelists in the early periods of novel writing. So with these underlying issues in mind the structure of the novel is also worth briefly looking at so the opening can be put into context. It must be taken into consideration the stylistically the opening chapter is very different from the rest of the novel. The first chapter is set on Crusoe's island and is a written account as to what occurred. The style is very realistic and detailed. The second chapter is slightly more removed and is written before our very eyes in a set of letters to Mr Foe. The writing style is still detailed and realistic however towards the end of the chapter a few questions are raised as to who Susan Barton is and who is the child following her around. The third part of the novel is set at Foes house and is again a first hand account but has a very different feel to the opening. It becomes slightly more surreal and raising many questions as to whether Foe exists or is a creation of Susan's or whether Susan is a creation of his. The final scene is set in a room and under water. It could not detach the reader any more as we lose who is narrating. We know its is not Susan as she appears to be dead. This is Coetzee destroying the realistic world he had created. Out of the four parts the opening is extremely significant as it crucial for creating the world in which Coetzee can put across the points that he is raising. So what is Coetzee beginning to create at the start of the novel? With his opening chapter he creates the foundations for his attacks on Defoe and the cultural and gender issues of today's society. However my use of the word attacks should not be taken too literally because directly no issues are addressed however it is clear in the subtext what points he wants to throw into debate. The main function of the opening is to throw Defoe's apparent true novel of Crusoe into debate and also to create a realistic foundation that can crumble in on itself as the novel develops. Anything self-critical has to reflect on itself inwardly and the opening sets Coetzee up to be able to do this. From the very opening it is clear that this is a vivid realistic account. Ã¢â¬Å"There I lay sprawled on the hot sand, my head filled with the orange blazing sun, my petticoat (which was all I had escaped with) baking dry upon me, tired, grateful like the saved. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë It is clear immediately from this quotation that the narrator appears to physically feeling what she is describing. The opening few pages include many of these vivid descriptions which lay the setting for Defoe's attack on Crusoe's story. The reader can not doubt her version, as it appears so real. His first attack on Defoe's novel appears early on. Ã¢â¬ For readers reared on travellers' tales, the words desert isle may conjure up a place of soft sands and shady trees where brooks run to quench the castaways thirstÃ¢â¬ ¦ But the island on which I was cast away was quite another place: a great rocky hill with a flat topÃ¢â¬ ¦ There were ants scurrying everywhere, of the same kind we had in Bahia, and another pest too, living in the dunes: a tiny insect that hid between your toes and ate its way into your flesh. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë This account is a great example of the realism used to put the whole of Defoe's work into question. This is a direct attack by Coetzee on how realistic Defoe's island really is. The reader will of course believe Susan Bartons account as it appeals through realism. It is a clever device used by Coetzee because he knows himself that what he is writing is not true. Another area that lays doubt upon Defoe's story is the figure Crusoe. His name is depleted to Cruso to show he is nothing like the man that Defoe creates. Not only is he a shadow of the main that Defoe created he is also unsure of his own history. Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ he stories he told me were so various, and so hard to reconcile one with another, that I was more and more driven to conclude that age and isolation had taken their toll on his memory, and he no longer knew for sure what was truthÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë This throws again Defoe's account into doubt and would make a reader believe Coetzee's version. Another example of Coetzee trying to strengthen Susan's account is her repetition of the line: Ã¢â¬Å"Then at last I could row no further. My hands were raw, my back was burned, my body ached. Ã¢â¬ This repetition of the same account to both the reader and Crusoe shows that she knows her story and uses the exact same wording both times she tells it. This is a clever device used by Coetzee to show that Crusoe's story is fragile and various where as Susan's is stabile and unchanging. The other main instrument used by Coetzee in the opening of the book to express his subtext is the use of Susan as the narrator and the way she perceives things. Through realism he sets up his attack on Defoe and novel writing but through the narrator he brings in the allegorical themes such as gender and race. From a feminist point of view Susan Barton is, as Patrick Corcoran stated, Ã¢â¬Å"a representative of her sex who has suffered at the hands of men and who struggles to assert herself in a male dominated society. Ã¢â¬ To expand upon this comment, she does definitely appear to represent the women of society and how even though she shared the island with Crusoe she always felt that she was not there Ã¢â¬ When I reflect upon my story I seem to exist only as the one who came, the one who witnessedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ She feels that it is Crusoe's story despite the fact that she is as easily as active as Crusoe and manages to escape, which he does not. Upon arrival she assumes that she is his subject. Ã¢â¬Å"With these words I presented myself to Robinson Cruso, in the days when he still ruled over his island, and became his second, the first being his man servant Friday Ã¢â¬ She does not even question the fact that he is the master of the island she just excepts that Friday and herself are under his rule. This is put in by Coetzee to question the role of women in Defoe's novel. There is no place for women in Robinson Crusoe and Coetzee provides us with an idea of what Crusoe would have been like with a woman on the island. Also Coetzee leaves it to the audience to decide what type of woman Susan is. He gives us no social background so we expect nothing from her. Throughout the book it is unclear what she is, whether she is a lady, a whore or a gypsy. This uncertainty is thrown into confusion many times, as she seems very educated and full of ideas Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Å"You are mistaken! Ã¢â¬ I cried Ã¢â¬ I do not wish to dispute, but you have forgotten very much, and with every day that passes you forget more! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë This extract shows that Susan Barton's type of language is not uneducated and her ability to speak up to and man and disagree shows strength. This may be a result of her life experience gained on her travels. However it is more likely that it is Coetzee toying with the idea of how putting a female on the island would effect Crusoe's power. These power battles are an important theme in the novel and Susan faces them throughout first chapter with Crusoe then Friday in the second and then Defoe in the third. The other major issue raised by Coetzee is the idea of slavery and race difference. Friday is a shadow that hangs over the story throughout and cannot be ignored, as his silence is perhaps the most telling and powerful factor in the novel. The majority of these issues are raised in the second and third chapters in Susan's handling of Friday. However they are present in the early stages of the novel in Crusoe's approach to Friday. Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Å"How many words of English does Friday know? Ã¢â¬ I asked Ã¢â¬Å"As many as he needs,Ã¢â¬ replied Cruso. Ã¢â¬Å"This is not England, we have no need of great stock of wordsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Ë Dispite Fridays disability this shows that Crusoe has no intention of making a companion of Friday and only wishes to treat him as an inhuman slave. Crusoe's views on Friday can be seen to represent the whites treatment of the African race in the early part of the nineteen hundreds. When Susan takes over the role of master she can be seen to represent the white liberals in South Africa who tried to help the Africans but only tried to help them by trying to make them like white men and by doing so enslaved them further. RM. Post's view on the political level of the novel is that Crusoe represents the stubborn and corrupt Afrikaner government, with Susan Barton the white sympathetic liberal and Friday the black people. He even goes as far as to compare Susan to Mother Africa as she is searching for a child who is searching for her. He justifies his claim that Foe is an allegory of contemporary South Africa by pointing out the crucial fact that Friday is of completely different race in Coetzee's Foe than he is in Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Ã¢â¬ The fact that the latter Friday is a black man helps us see Foe, set primarily in England in the eighteenth century, as an allegory of contemporary South Africa. Ã¢â¬ Defoe's Friday has olive skin with straight long hair; Coetzee s Friday is black with a Ã¢â¬Å"head of fuzzy wool. Ã¢â¬ There are other hints in the opening of the story to suggest some link with the treatment of the blacks in South Africa. The removal of Fridays tongue is perhaps one of the most obvious symbols in the book. He can be seen as having no voice like the Negro's in post colonial Africa. Susan and Crusoe's failure to communicate with Friday successfully is of course down to lack of understanding of his culture. However the fact that Crusoe manages to communicate with Friday better than Susan could be seen to flaw RM. Post's argument as could the fact that Friday was apparently happier on the island before Susan tried to free him. The opening to Coetzee's foe is a vital part of the novel. As discussed it lays the foundations for all of Coetzee's allegorical meanings. The opening is essential to understanding the race, gender and power struggles that are central themes in the novel. In terms of realism it sets Coetzee up to question the fundamentals of the novel and how far can an author go in terms of making a book appear an accurate reflection of real life. From this foundation he also highlights the author's ability to create and destroy there own work no matter how realistic it may appear to be.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Many sociologists argue that Ã¢â¬Å"factors and processes within school are the main cause of differenceÃ¢â¬ These factors include gender, class and ethnicity. All of these things can lead to certain stereotypes and labels being forced upon pupils. The idea that Teachers have certain expectations of different social and ethnic groups means that self-fulfilling prophecy can lead to pupils living out positive and negative labels. The role of gender in educational achievement is that in past times it has been that boys have achieved less than girls in school, this could be that boys have a history of Ã¢â¬ËladdishÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and have had a negative attitude to learning. This had also led to teachers expectations of Ã¢â¬ËladsÃ¢â¬â¢ to be low which has caused negative stereotypes and labels. All of these things have in turn caused many anti-school subcultures. Jackson did a study about how this Ã¢â¬ËladdishÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour is now being seen in some girls which could in fact mean that it is not only boys that have these negative labels but also girls. Another factor that may influence the achievement of girls is that girls now have a lot of higher role models and more opportunities in the future; this can lead to them working harder because they can see themselves being successful in the future. Another In-school factor would be ethnicity, different ethnic groups achieve better than others in education, for example the highest achieving ethnic group is British Chinese and the lowest would be black African Caribbean boys. The reasons for these differences in achievement could be linked to family morals and attitudes to school. Teachers also have expectations of different ethnic groups which again, like gender can lead to positive and negative labels and stereotypes. The curriculum in schools could also lead to this due to it being ethnocentric. Differences in class an play a crucial role in the achievement between different classes, for example working class children do not have as much cultural capital as middle class children and this can play a vital part in how they achieve at school, due to teachers expectations of how they behave and achieve. The idea of the hidden curriculum means that schools are preparing students for middle class jobs with middle class ideas. Also the idea that middle class teachers get on better with idle class students also reinforces the idea of teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations which can lead to self-fulfilling prophecy and students either over or under achieving. One more in-school factor would be pupil subcultures and how streaming and setting can lead to both anti and pro school subcultures, This again links to the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy and that students may either reject their labels or follow them. The organisation of the school can also be closely linked to class and how students may be put into lower streams or sets due to their social background and how teachers perceive them. Home backgrounds of students also contribute to a large part of their achievement. The differences in class can lead to many home disadvantages such as material deprivation which means that students do not have enough money for resources such as private tutors, laptops, trips or uniforms; this will give them a disadvantage compared to middle class students. Working class students may also have other responsibilities to attend to such as looking after siblings or even disabled parents; this means that they do not have as much time to spend on studying. ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards school and education can also prove to be an impact, if a parent has a negative attitude to school and learning then the child will not have as much pressure or ambition to do as well. This idea of parent expectations links closely with ethnicity and how different ethnic groups view educarion. In conclusion there are many in school processes that can influence the achievement of children such as gender and how girls and boys are perceived and what teachers expect of them. Another would be Class and how working and middle class students achieve differently due to aspects of school life like the hidden curriculum. Also ethnicity and the expectations and ideas about certain groups like the British Chinese. There are also a lot of out of school factors such as home background, material deprivation and parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations. Overall I believe that the both in school factors and out of school factors contribute to the differences in educational achievement of different social groups.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Newspaper Industry - Essay Example We shall tackle both sides of the argument individually so as to gain proper insight on the issues involved in the debate. The negative impact that the internet has had on the newspaper industry is mainly as a result of the switch of consumers from printed material to electronic material for news, entertainment among other uses. The impact of this switch is evident in the steady decline of readership and circulation which has since become more of a norm than an exception, with readerships dropping in rates as high as 16% (Miller, 2005) The internet affects print media on three major frontiers, advertisement revenue, readership and innovation and technology. Since the largest source of revenue for newspapers is advertisement, newspapers stand to suffer if they do not offer competitive packages for their customers. This has led to severe rates undercutting which has in turn dug into the revenues of the newspapers resulting in job cuts, plagiarism and writing of untrue and fictitious stories and events with shameless abandon (Hughes, 2006). The reason for this can partially be attributed to the fact that a dvertisers try to promote their products to the highest possible audience at the lowest cost, the internet offers a better than perfect substitute for newspapers for several reasons. For instance, the internet has far much more ahead as far as accessibility is concerned compared to newspapers. Whereas the latter offers some options for leisure and recreation in one or two pages, these options are comparatively limited to those which the internet can offer because at the simple click of a button one can access millions of online entertainment sites. Online advertisements are also more effective because in the first place, there are lesser limits to the size of the advertisement in relation to the total surface area available wherein it might take up to a quarter of the page at a minimal cost. In contrast, a quarter page advertisement in a newspaper is bound to cost quite a lot, actually about 21times that of the online advertisement (Karp, 2007). It is therefore quite clear that onli ne advertisements are more cost effective than their print counterparts. In addition, online advertisements have the option of containing hyperlinks, which connect the user to the advertiser's website where he can find much more information about them, their products and/or services, giving rise to more opportunities of turning the advertisement leads into sales. The newspaper advertisements can do little else than just display the advertisers' contact details after the main content. The advertisements themselves have much better design when online because they may be made dynamic, which basically means that they may have movements and even sounds to accompany them which greatly enhances their memorability and ability to capture the attention of the target reader. In sharp contrast, advertisements in newspapers are limited to showing a single picture which may not be as attractive. The
Sunday, July 28, 2019
The Role of Economic Fertility and Population in Economic Growth - Essay Example And although there was a slowdown in per capita growth from the period 1961-85, Brander and Dorwick attributes this due to a decline in technological progress and less so due to the doubling of population at the world level. Finally, technological change is taken as an exogenous variable in the models of this paper, where possible recommendations include detailed modeling of endogenous emergence of technological progress as an outcome of the maximization by firms in an imperfectly competitive environment and keeping in mind that per capita income approximates the economic welfare of both children and adults. Ever since the inception of scientific studies which tackle population or fertility as an underlying reason of economic stagnation, there has been an increase not only in awareness of overpopulation as a leading factor for poverty, but also in general funding for contraceptives both from private and public institutions. To this extent, key people in society have agreed that the p opulation problem is the principal element for long-term economic development. Even before this study of Brander and Dorwick, the United States has already adopted a policy the National Security Memorandum 200: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests which gives priority on population control measures and the promotion of contraception among 13 populous countries. Insofar as the effects of overpopulation is concerned, media including USAID has touted the rational that the U.S. economy requires large and increasing amounts of minerals from abroad and that these countries can produce destabilizing opposition forces without support for population-related efforts. Initial regression equations proposes per capita output growth as the dependent variable and population growth and crude birth rate as individual independent factors affecting per capita income. The theoretical framework used for the paper by Brander and Dowrick, however, has its ro ots in the aggregate production function, Y = Y(K,H,R;O,o) where Y represents domestic output, K represents capital, H represents effective labor input, R represents fixed factors of production such as land and natural resources, O represents the states of technology and o represents other factors. After parametric transformation, the main factors considered to affect per capita output growth in percent includes annualized five year growth rate in the share of population of working age, annualized five year population growth rate, investment as a % share of GDP (5 year average) and the log of relative productivity. Sub-regressions were made for growth in working age share of population versus birth rates and investment as affected by birth rate, relative price of investment and income. All in all, the channels by which fertility affects per capita income include the share of population of working age, the change in population growth rates leading to changes in availability of capita l and natural resources per person and economies of scale, and through per capita investment rate, all of which lead to a negative relationship with per capita income. Like all regression models, the model by Brander and Dorwic
Build team effectiveness - Research Paper Example characteristic of effective team is that it has clear and demanding performance goals and the atmosphere tends to be informal, comfortable (DeRuvo 5-7). In effective teams, every individual carries his or her own weight and all decisions are democratically made. Generally, there is efficient use of ideas characterized with open communication. Team effectiveness requires loyalty to the team and believing in every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution. Every team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution should be respected by others and open communication should be enhanced among members (Folkman 1-3). Strong communication and collaboration as well as trust and commitment are regarded as the building block of successful teams. However, ineffective teams are characterized with low unity of purpose and the group does not involve itself with discussions that maintain it. There are also low performance goals and the atmosphere tends to reflect indifference. Some group members do not carry their fare share and criticism is characterized with hostility. Ineffective teams also have dominant figure who seek to gain power and dominate the group and personal feelings are hidden. Team leaders are supposed to be patient and pay attention to every memberÃ¢â¬â¢s details. Team leaders are not supposed to take sides when it comes to problem solving issues especially when there conflict among members. Leaders should give a listening ear to every member and encourage pursuance of a common goal (Folkman 1-3). Every team member should learn to respect each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion and avoid creating unnecessary conflicts. Team members should further avoid unhealthy competition among themselves. Team members should embrace diversity of skill and personality and have a meaningful common purpose (Martini Web). Team members who have never worked in a team should further be free to share their ideas and increase their commitment towards the common goal of the team. Goal setting and tend to inspire and motivate others at a
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Drug Trafficking within the United States - Essay Example Additionally, the land facilitates entry of 370 million people while the sea plays a significant role in this sector as it aids to entry of over six million people into this country. The sea also witnesses more than nine million shipping containers dock at the coastal ports of America (Scott, 2003). These ships ferry very many containers filled with different merchandise supplied to different parts of America. Ideally, this voluminous trade contributes largely to drug trafficking as drug traffickers conceal different drugs inside these containers. This paper will seek to develop an argumentative paper on drug trafficking in the United States. Surprisingly, amid this great deal of trade, drug peddlers manage to conceal illegal drugs such as marijuana, methamphetamine, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA, heroine, and cocaine and ship these drugs directly into the American market for distribution (Ganister & David, 2008). Numerous drug trafficking groups acquire and distribute these d rugs to criminals operating in the South of America who extend the chain by smuggling marijuana and cocaine via a number of routes into different parts of America. ... al drugs for distribution into the US neighborhoods, the Mexican criminal drug traffickers are seeking to increase their grip of distributing these drugs into the eastern part of US markets. Similarly, as of today, the use of 3 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is on the rise in the streets as it goes in the name Ã¢â¬Å"ecstasyÃ¢â¬ . Statistics show that the abuse of this type of drug is rising at an alarming rate in the streets of the United States following the emergency and collaboration of Russian and Israeli drug traffickers (Lyman & Potter, 2010). Western Europe is the world largest produce of MDMA. The Western Europe drug smugglers collaborate with the Mexican criminals who facilitate the entry of this type of drug into the United States market through commercial airlines as well as through express package couriers. Criminal groups ailing from the Southeast and Southwest Asia control and smuggle illegal drugs like heroine into the United States market with the help of s ome mafias based in the New York City which happens to be the main hub for distribution of heroine within and around Midwest and eastern sea bond (Scott, 2003). International drug trafficking aside, America has interior drug smugglers who in addition to trafficking take part in planting and manufacturing. Common drugs found in the hands of criminals of this caliber comprise of marijuana and phencyclidine PCP (Younger & Rosin, 2005). Others include lysergic acid diethylamide LSD and methamphetamine. As the demand for high potency methamphetamine continues to grow, the number of illicit laboratories is also hiking. This is because of the growing number of addicts especially college and high school students. Up to this point, one may ask for reasons as to why drug trafficking is on the verge in the
Friday, July 26, 2019
Sustainability in Context of Oil and Gas Development - Dissertation Example cess to information and justice 65 Principle Six: The principle of good governance 71 Principle Seven: The principle of integration 75 3-3 Synthesis of New Delhi Declaration Principles 78 3-4 Examples of Practices for Sustainable Development of Oil and Gas Resources 79 3-5 IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s need for Sustainable Development of Oil and Gas Resources 84 3-6 Conclusion 88 3-7 From Legal Evolution of Sustainable Development to IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s Legal Frameworks for Oil and Gas Sustainable Development 90 Bibliography 90 3-1 IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.4 3-2 Defining Sustainable DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... ... Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..38 Principle Four: Precaution regarding human health, natural resources and ecosystemsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦.45 Principle Five: The principle of public participation and access to information and justice Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.50 Principle Six: The principle of good governance Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.54 Principle Seven: The principle of integration Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦57 3-3-4 Synthesis of New Delhi Declaration Pr inciples Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.59 3-4 Examples of Practices for Sustainable Development of Oil and Gas Resources Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...60 3-5 IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s need for Sustainable Development of Oil and Gas Resources Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...63 3-6 Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 66 3-7 From Legal Evolution of Sustainabl e Development to IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s Legal Frameworks for Oil and Gas Sustainable DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..68 BibliographyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..69 3-1 Introduction The concept of sustainability has been evolving over time1 and has assumed a number of different dimensions today. Contemporary sustainability has taken up environmental, social, political, economic as well as cultural aspects. It has
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Derm Project - Assignment Example Acne Folliculitis Acne, scientifically called Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition. It affects the hair follicles at the chest, face or even the back. It is manifested in the skin as congested pores called comedones, pustules, tender red bumps or cysts. Diagnosis of acne is on the basis of patient history and physical assessment. Initial pathology through microscopy is called microcomedo and, involves open or comedones referred to as blackheads and whiteheads respectively. These include Pillsbury acne grading scale, acne cook scale and acne Leeds technique (Gaeddert, 2003). Folliculitis is a common skin condition which is evident by several minute red or pink bumps predominant in at the hair follicles. This skin condition can affect any part of the body including the back, arms, legs, chest and cheeks. Ranging between 10 - 100 bumps, this skin condition appears as a scatter within the affected area. The spots or bumps can be slightly red indicating an inflammation. Accidental scr atching of the bump reveals a coiled hair engulfed within the bump. Diagnosis of Folliculitis basically involves the assessment of the skinÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance (Gaeddert, 2003). On rare instances is skin biopsies required so as to help the dermatologist on diagnosis. Additionally, the skin could be cultured in bacterial media so as to help in detection of the causative agent. Microscopic tests on the skin including fungal tests can be conducted using potassium hydroxide. This procedure helps in determining whether the condition is caused by a fungus or yeast. A histopathological procedure can be conducted to reveal epidermal hyperkeratosis as well as clustering of leukocytes. Rosacea Eczema Rosacea is a thriving skin condition which affects the eyes and the face. It is characterized by reddening of the affected region indicating a possible inflammation as well as emergence of pimples. This dermatological condition is most pronounced in women and individuals with fair skin tone. Usua lly, Rosacea is evident in the age range of between 30 to 60 years. Also termed as acne rosacea, this condition is characterized by symptoms of swollen nose, thick skin, red and itchy eyes. Moreover, there is a stinging facial skin on application of lotions as well as minute red veins on the face. The diagnosis of Rosacea is mostly dependent on physical examination categorized as primary or secondary features. A patient is diagnosed with Rosacea if he or she possesses one of the primary features of persistent flushing, pimples, visible blood vessels. Secondary features are manifest in several subtypes including Papulopustular, Phymatous Erythematotelangiectatic and ocular rosacea (Gaeddert, 2003). Eczema is characterized by vesicles that are small and which contain fluid substance. These vessicles are pimple like and are evident as reddish and swollen. When dried, the fluids leave behind dry patches on the surface of the affected areas. This condition occurs in the facial region in a majority of patients. Eczema can be diagnosed through microscopy. Seborrheic Dermatitis Scalp psoriasis A close relative psoriasis is the seborrheic dermatitis that affects the scalp as well. This condition is inflammatory and it leads to the production of flaky, white to yellowish scabs on the skin. Symptoms of this condition include reddish swollen patches around the nose, armpits and mouth. Others include itching, widespread
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Presuade Your Employer You Deserve A Raise - Essay Example I believe that I have been exceptional in all that time that I have served the organization till now. I know that I have not given a full year to the organization but whatever, I have given is worth praise. There are people who work to earn a living. There are those who work to keep themselves occupied. There are also those who work to achieve a sense of fulfillment and those who work for a multiple combinations of the three reasons mentioned above. I work because I am passionate about what I do. It is not surprising then, to see that in a short span of a little under a year, I have achieved more than what you could have expected and have delivered on all fronts. When I joined the organization, I was completely new to the concept of the retail industry. However, in a small amount of time, I have achieved what was not possible for other people. I was given a higher position keeping the fact aside that I was not an experienced person. I appreciate the step taken by the organization in terms of my upgrade. However, I was also looking towards a raise in my pay. I do not think you can deny the fact that the consumer appliances segment of our store has been extremely well organized and my peers appreciate my contribution to the changes that I had suggested Ã¢â¬â and which have been implemented Ã¢â¬â in the way we track our inventory. I think the suggestions were a function of the time I had spent at the store and also my ability to innovate. Using the new inventory tracking process, our suppliers can be requested for replenishing the stock before a particular item gets completely depleted. You might like to believe that inventory management is not a central issue for a retail store, but I would request you to walk down to any of the other consumer electronics stores across the mall. You would observe two things: Another critical factor that I would like to draw your attention to is that I have developed my own set of regular clientele
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Organizational Intelligence Policy - Essay Example To remain competitive and afloat in such a business environment, computer and information technology organizations must embark on the search for revolutionary and forward-looking techniques not only for creating but also for collecting, storing, capturing, organizing, managing, and distributing data/knowledge through its structure. Importantly, these techniques should allow for the easy and effective retrieval of needed information at the convenient moments (Ali et al., 2007). Organizations must however appreciate the level and nature of skills and competence required to develop and apply such knowledge and data management practices and techniques. Besides the need for IT and computer system executives, managers, systems analysts to be skilled and possess the competitive edge to perform the above functions and realize their data-related objectives, it is important that effective and elaborate Intelligence Organization policies are developed to ensure processes related to data collect ion, database systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ security measures, data storage, diverse knowledge availability, information update, data-based decision-making processes, and data management training are not only relevant but also effective and support the attainment of organizational and personal growth among employees (Ali et al., 2007). ... Organizational intelligence Policy Organizational Intelligence refers to the capacity and the ability of an organization to utilize various methodologies, concepts, techniques, and tools to achieve information or knowledge-related functions and processes, including data collection, database systemsÃ¢â¬â¢ security measures, data storage, diverse knowledge availability, information update, data-based decision-making processes, and data management training (James, 1999). A sound Organizational Intelligence policy should, of most importance, outline the purposes for which the OI has been developed. First, an Organizational Intelligence policy should ensure that an organization comprehends and makes productive conclusions from all the knowledge/information relevant to its operations and objectives (James, 1999). Second, an IO should outline an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to use knowledge, data/information to create sense out of complex business situations, prompting employees and ma nagers to act appropriately, maximizing on the opportunities presented by immediate or past circumstances. Third, an OI policy should be helpful in highlighting an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability not only to interpret but also to act on relevant circumstances, signals, or events in its environment. Fourth, an Organization Intelligence policy should promote the development, sharing, and usage of all information and knowledge relevant to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s purposes by the promotion of learning by experiences and exposures. Gathering Competition Intelligence As the IT and computer industry develops, it becomes necessary that organizations develop an OI policy that would ensure the above functions are developed towards the building of a stronger, more relevant, and equally competitive Organizational
Monday, July 22, 2019
Game theory in setting quantity oligopoly Essay Game theory is a formal study of conflict and cooperation in economics. In fact, it is usually concerned with predicting the real outcome of the games of strategy where the potential individuals have incomplete awareness about the othersÃ¢â¬â¢ plans. The game theoretic concepts usually apply whenever the actions of several agents are interdependent. Probably, these agents are either, groups, individuals or firms. The concepts of game theory give a language to prepare a structure, analyze, and comprehend deliberate scenarios. Ã Ã Ã Game theory has straight relevance to the study conduct of the venture as well as the performance of the firms in oligopolistic markets. A good approach is the decisions that companies takeover pricing and levels of production. Also, how much money needs to be invested in research and development expenditure (Binmore, 1993). Ã Ã Ã Oligopoly is a type of imperfectly competitive markets. It has only a few sellers, provide a related or identical product to the buyers in the market. Collusion in economics is simply an agreement of two or more firms with an aim to exclude a couple of competing companies in the market so that may obtain high profits. It is clearly that competition in the oligopolistic markets reduces accelerating the performance of that collusion. For that reason many firms quit the marketing operations enhancing profitability to the relating competitors hence deteriorating their economic decisions. This results to complete dissolution of the firms. The output of the collusion increases since most of the firms have quit the market; others loosen their momentum to adhere to the upcoming changes launched in by the oligopolistic markets (Mertens, 1994). As a matter of fact, this becomes advantageous to the remaining firms in the market (Thomas, 2003). Ã Ã Ã Ã It is noted that collusion is a characteristic trait of oligopolistic firms. Stiff competition and interdependent decision-making encourage oligopolistic firms to cooperate. In fact, one way to lessen the oligopolistic rival is joined together and meets targeted forces forming collusion. There are two main types of collisions in an oligopolistic market. Exclusively, include explicit collusion and implicit collusion. Explicit collusion is a type of collusion which has more two than firms in the same industry. It is formally agreed to control the market force on their own way whereas implicit collusion also more than two firms in the same business but informally they have the similar outlook in the market, habitually with nothing more than interdependent (Binmore, 1993).The price collusion is a form of criminal offense since several firms work as a team so as to keep the price of commodity high with an aim to receive huge income. The relating firms involved necessar ily try to chase out their competitor. History and impact of game theory Ã Ã Ã In 19th century, game theory was first discovered by one of the early inventors. Consequently, in 1838, the first publication was done by Antoine Cornet. In broad spectrum, he came up with well-formulated researchers on the Mathematical Principles of this kind of theory basing on wealth. He went further to illustrate more on the principles of the publication relating to the game theory. Notably, he tried to explain the underlying rules constituting the actual behavior of the duopoly in the discipline. Even though this publication was associated with the theory of Games and Economics character in 1944, it had the latest principles of game theory that were formulated in it. The game theory has been greatly applied to the behavior of producers with few or one competitor. This perspective of the game theory was conceived by Von Neumann in 19th century. Ã Ã Ã In macroeconomics, oligopolistic markets are characterized by a few, large firms and its differences from the other market structures as stated above. It is noted that more competitive markets in the firms are of smaller size and its firmÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior have slight or no effect on its close competitors. Besides this oligopoly markets changes its output, enlarge into a new market, provides modern services and even advertize. This will have a consequential impact on the market competitors, therefore, increasing the profitability. This enhances more power in the market operation hence deviating losses had to be encountered. For this reason, the firms in oligopolistic markets are always considering the act of their competitors when implementing their economic decisions. The oligopolistic owners strictly tackle any leakages in their market so that they may attain their set goals and formulated objectives. Information exchange in collusion Ã Ã Ã In broad spectrum, information is an essential tool in planning to come up with mature and complete mechanization of the involving firms. Basing this argument on the game theory, it is realized that in decision making, information is significantly employed. For that reason, a successful collusion in the oligopoly market has sophisticated means on how to underlie its perspectives in a manner that no rival firm come to know. Therefore, crude ideas empower any collusion with a vision to reduce their competitors in the market. Advances in economic theory have enabled the economists to set competitive distinctions between different types of information exchanged between the firms. The required beneficial effect on the consumers and potential side-effects for competition depend on the nature and characteristic of the information that exchanged and also the type of competition in the market. Therefore, it should be known that firm owns the secret in the industry such as firmÃ¢ â¬â¢s prices, sales, cost demand and other parameters.According to game theory, the competitors are not supposed to get any of this secretive information. Competition authorities are strictly suspicious when information is conveyed especially about prices and quantities because this information is normally significant for monitoring deviations from collusive arrangements and hence empowering collusion. Mostly exchange of information on the cost and demand is seen in another dimension and more favorably. However, information about the prices and quantities is used to convey information about the cost or demand in collusion. For instance, when the firms share information on the past or current prices and quantities inform other players about the demand in the market. This enables their rivals to obtain inferences on how to predict the future period which is against the game theory. Notably, this will weaken their collusion that later on begins to deteriorate in their existence in th e market. As a matter of fact, demand and cost information is useful since is the central element for predicting future demand. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Effective collusion needs good coordination that is well supported by the exchange of information about their plans. This monitors the performance of the collusion in some days to come. In so doing, their rivals will be unable to out-compete them. They become prominent in the market achieving their set goals and objectives. The aggregated information determines whether the collusion will succeed or not. This depends on how the decision making is done. The aggregated information means anonymous or individualized information. Probably, such information may be valuable to the firms. Therefore, it is necessary to know who or where a certain estimate has been made or whether it is enough to comprehend the private signals in the entire industry. In addition, information can be either private or public. The effects of information exchange extremely differ depending on whether the information is made public or kept private, especially in the industry that exchange inf ormation. The game theory does not support exposure of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions. Definitely, they try it, their rival players will come up with the newest perspectives to out-compete them. Therefore, this should be done privately for future success (Thomas, 2003). Ã Ã Ã It realized that if the information does not give rise to competition distress it will be definitely positive to welfare. Indeed, the usefulness from information exchange is large compared to its demerits. There are quite number of the ways in which information exchange is useful in the welfare. Information exchange is a great part of the discovery mechanism in the industry economy. This implies that through exchange of information in between the formed collusion encourages expansion of the market economy. It also improves investment decision and organization learning. It is only through information where collusion members come up with complete ideas to uplift their set goals. Information exchange also results to output adjustments and lowering search costs in the firm. In the world, information is really required about the demands and rival activities. Notably, the firms would have to become accustomed to the changing circumstances by a trial and error process. Inform ation exchange is a great tool in playing the role of uplifting market economy in collusion hence output in the firms. Impact of rational behavior in collusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Rationality is one way of decision-making practice wherein a firm exercises prudent choice making that gives it a maximum amount of benefit. Rational behavior usually facilitates decision making that is not productive in collusion. But it only strives to achieve benefits that are mostly achievable in nature. This usefulness can be either monetary or non-monetary. The word monetary stands for finance activities whereas non-monetary is associated with non-financial activities in a company. Therefore, any successful firm considers the following perspectives. This kind of decision making may not possible return materially to the firms at that moment on (Chatterjee, 2014). Therefore, rational choice theory is an economic principle. It states that firms make prudent and logical decisions so as to attain a complete satisfaction in the firm due to its abundant benefits. Ã Ã Ã Ã The output of collusion increases over time due to changes made in by the decision makers. The identified plans that based on rational behavior usually alter operation of oligopolistic market. Operations may greatly expand performance of the company undermining its valuable transactions. When the collusion need to uplift its operation have to be economical on the way do operate their activities so that can observe a slight differences. Notably, some measures need to be employed to overcome its competition from its rivals. The firms recruit innovative and competent staffs to invest great fortune in the organization. Ã Ã Ã Ã Competent economists formulate ideas flourishing functionality of the collusion hence uplifting profits, quantity, and its dignity. This shows how game theory is significantly applied in the oligopolistic market basing on the rational behavior. It is preferably considered as a means of competition through decision making. This scares rival players in the market such that are unable to operate their firms. Due to this condition, many firms in the markets are readily to be dissolved. The cause of this is just continuous losses experienced on every end fiscal year resulting to dissolution. Ã Ã Ã Ã According to game theory, rational behavior is greatly a crucial tool required to make decisions that are needed to eliminate relating firms in the market. Most importantly, competing firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ quantity reduces as well as its income accelerates due to well-played game theory in the oligopolistic market. Mainly rationality has a positive impact to the prudent collusion. Therefore, game theory is correlated to rationality behavior as far as decision making is concern in an oligopolistic market as mentioned earlier. Only that rational behavior is conditions suitable for accomplishing this specified theory (Mertens, 1994). Even though, participating firms can employ it, frequently is determined by competency of the collusion. Impact of time horizon in the collusion Ã Ã Ã Ã In economics, time horizon is also referred to as a planning horizon, is a fixed point of time in the future at which some activities will be evaluated. It is noted that is specified a time when all planned activities or processes are supposed to terminate. Therefore, time horizon is a vital condition to any successful stakeholders. It enhances a strict time layout on how to operate your business transactions before targeted deadline. This minimizes time wastage and considers it as a significant factor in implementing business laws. Actually, the set objectives and underlain goals, with the cooperation of competent experts in business, are easily achieved. Time horizon has optimum benefits to those who put it into consideration. Ã Ã Ã Ã Collusions have unique pathways on how they operate their organizational activities. Additions to that have business ethics for guiding set goals to reach its financial year and attain them. For a successful collusion, time horizon is much in demand to eradicate other firms out of the market. Especially, it needs strictness so that the set firmÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is accomplished on reaching time horizon. It confers bright future to competing firms enhancing increased output in the collusion. Time horizon sharpens performance of the most firms with an aim to make more profits in their organizations. Similarly, time horizon is a beneficial condition on practicing game theory in an oligopolistic market. It creates immense difference in the industry. The time horizon can be a month, a week or a year depending on the decision of the firm (Mertens, 1994).Broadly, time horizon is a viable and secret Ã¢â¬Å"toolÃ¢â¬ that empowers collusion to diminish performance of its riv als in the industry. Eventually, it becomes determinant condition in collusion leading the business to enjoy huge profits and crude output. Collusion lowers its productsÃ¢â¬â¢ price encouraging more sales whereas its rivals remain constant to the initial price. Cost is usually lower hence encouraging more sales due to high demand. The collusion stagnates in the same price until time horizon comes. At that planning horizon, several firms would have left the industry enabling collusion with uncompetitive environment to work on (Chatterjee, 2014). Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã In broad spectrum, game theory deals with decision making that reinforce competition perspectives in the market. It is kind of a game whereby participating individuals hide their intentions purposely to win over the other. In this case, information, rationality, and time horizon are determinant conditions that boost succession of collusion in an oligopolistic market. It signifies that to acquire viable benefits in the market has to employ well-formulated conditions.Therefore, cost, demand, and quantity differ from relating firms in the industry. Strictly, collusion tries to lower its prices with an aim to increase its output and eliminate the number of firms in the industry. Similarly, quantity in the industry increases with increased prices from other firms. Due to that reason number of consumers in those firms reduces joining newly formed collusion. This enforces rivals to reduce its prices of their products leading to uncountable losses hence leading to collaps ing of many firms. The collusion succeeds its target of eliminating other firms from the industry henceforth starts enjoying oligopolistic benefits including profits. Reference Binmore, K. (1993). Frontiers of game theory. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press Telser, L. G. (1971). Competition, collusion, and game theory. London: Macmillan. Chatterjee, K., Samuelson, W. (2014). Game theory and business applications. New York: Springer. Mertens, J.-F., NATO Advanced Study Institute on Game-Theoretic Methods in Economic Equilibrium Analysis. (1994). Game theoretic methods in general equilibrium analysis: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Game Theoretic Methods in General Equilibrium Analysis, Long Island, NY USA, July 1 12, 1991]. Dordrecht [u.a.: Kluwer. Thomas, L. C. (2003). Games, theory and applications.Voigt, S., Schmidt, A. (2005). Making European merger policy more predictable. Dordrecht: Springer. Source document
Teaching AssistantÃ¢â¬â¢s Essay Teaching Assistants work in Primary, Secondary and Special Needs Schools. Individual duties and responsibilities can vary greatly but will be outlined in their job description. A TAs role is to support Ã¢â¬â this can be in a classroom situation, with groups or individual pupils and can often be all three. Support in the classroom (Classroom Assistant) involves more general duties helping the teacher with tasks in the classroom and pupils learning and development. TAs can be assigned to children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) who will benefit from help on a one to one basis or in smaller groups. Responsibilities can be as a Learning Support Assistant, supporting children with learning difficulties or as a Personal Care Assistant those needing help with day to day personal care. In 2003, the National Workforce agreement was established which acknowledged the need to raise standards in schools and address workloads. From this Higher Level Teaching Assistants (HLTAs) evolved. This higher level status gave additional responsibilities that previously only teachers could do, for example, developing support materials and assisting in lesson planning. Some schools, especially large or special needs schools, have TAs with additional, more specific roles. This ensures that all pupils and members of the team are supported adequately. Although there are many different roles a TA can have there are fundamental aspects of the job which will be the same. These can be categorised into four areas. 1. Supporting the Pupil. Support for the pupil is support for all pupils the TA comes into contact with in the school. Even if they are assigned to an individual child they will still interact with other pupils whilst in the school environment. It is the responsibility of a TA, as all members of staff, to maintain safe and healthy surroundings for children endorsing equal opportunity for all pupils to learn and grow. TAs must not show prejudice and be alert to, and aware of, discrimination within the school, encouraging non prejudicial attitudes. It is equally important to show appreciation and acceptance of the differences between people and help children understand that everyone has different qualities. Another aspect of a TAs job is to aid the development of pupils life and social skills. They should encourage inclusion and integration of pupils particularly when children have been taken out of class for extra help or after long periods of absence, due to illness for example. Listening to pupils and showing interest in what they do in and out of school, lifting their self esteem and building confidence, therefore encouraging independence. Whatever job description a TA has they should set a good example to pupils and be a good role model. 2. Supporting the Teacher. TAs need to be able to forge good working relations and work within structures that the teacher has outlined. Whatever specific role they have been employed for it is of great importance to be fully aware of the lesson aims and learning targets to enable the pupils to achieve their best. A TA is in a strong position to help the teacher observe, assess and record pupils learning and behavioural progress and offer feedback on these issues. 3. Supporting the School. All members of staff, including Teaching Assistants, are part of a team and when working effectively together can only benefit the school and consequently the pupils. TAs need to be aware of and work within school policies and procedures. These policies will include matters relating to Child Protection, Health Safety, Confidentiality and the Curriculum. It is essential to work within these policies procedures to ensure issues, such as bullying, are reported correctly and dealt with quickly and effectively. It gives a consistent framework to deal with issues fairly and equally. TAs support the school by acknowledging and using their skills and being prepared to learn and develop new ones. 4. Supporting the Curriculum. To support the Curriculum TAs need to have knowledge and understanding of ways in which children think and learn, progression of expected development and factors that inhibit learning. The National Literary and Numeracy Strategies have given TAs more involvement in these aspects of the curriculum, especially in primary schools. They are frequently engaged to work in other areas of the curriculum such as Physical Education (PE) and Information and Communications Technology (ICT). With these increasing responsibilities it is helpful to have knowledge of National Curriculum documents and planning processes. A Teaching Assistant, as the name suggests, is there to help pupils achieve results whilst attending school. This is where the most differences in roles can be seen. In primary schools, a Teaching Assistant assigned to a class is responsible for assisting all pupils in that class. There are many tasks this involves including: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Checking work and encouraging pupils to correct mistakes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Listening to reading.Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢ Helping with practical work e.g. Crafts, outdoor activities/outings. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Repeating instructions the teacher has given and ensuring the children understand what they need to do. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Working with smaller groups of children.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Managing Operations Apple Inc Commerce Essay Apple Inc is a large multinational in the consumer electronic business that builds on its ability to innovate and use its strong flexibility in product development speed to create competitive capability in the market. Fortune named Apple as the most admired company in the world. However, Apple did not figure in the top ten companies on use of assets, social responsibility, and global competitiveness in this survey. This study explores the reasons for this insofar as they lie in management of operations in the company. A survey of literature reveals that there are few agreements on what constitutes lean or agile manufacturing and disagreement on the correct choice of operations management strategy. We examine whatever one can find in reports, literature, and the companys own publications and compare these to the gleanings from theory to arrive at some recommendations for Apple to consider for operations management strategy. Globalisation has increased complexity of supply chains that need to span several countries with diverse cultures, laws and regulations, and time zones. However, with increasing pressure on the need to conserve non-renewable sources of energy and to mitigate the impact of operations on the environment, globalisation is a process likely to reverse in the not so far future. Apple must prepare for this through innovative strategies in organisation and distribution. We recommend a strategy that simultaneously looks at lean when addressing use of resources and agile manufacturing in addressing customer needs, to meet competition on both, cost and product differentiation, fronts. In looking at lean manufacturing, we strongly recommend moderation in implementation to preserve flexibility and agility. Operations Management Apple Inc Contents Operations Management Apple Inc 1.0 Introduction Apple Inc is a large multinational in the consumer electronic business. The comment of James Collins, editor-in-chief of the T3 Consumer Gadgets Magazine, talking about the iPod exemplifies the image and sheer volume of market penetration achieved by the company; Collins says: Its cool across the board: everyone from my seven-year-old niece to my 60-year-old uncle has one. Norbert Reithofer, CEO of BMW adds to the image in his comment (in Bernasek, 2010): Apples customers are more than customers theyre fans. The whole world held its breath before the iPad was announced. Thats brand management at its very best. Apple builds on its ability to innovate and use its strong flexibility in product development speed to create capability in the market. Consider the fact that Apple introduced 7 different versions of its iPod within four and a half years of launch (Levy, 2006). Despite not being the first-to-market, it has used this capability to leverage its expertise in the iPod, iPhone, iTunes, iWorks suite of products and command a premium on all its products (Boddie, 2005). However, on the critical issues of use of assets, social responsibility, and global competitiveness it does not score favourably (money.cnn.com). As long as Apples products command a premium, and as long as it can continue introducing innovative new products this does not appear a serious concern. However, it is the contention of this report that despite these factors, Apple stands to gain tremendously by using modern operations management concepts such as Lean Manufacturing (which we alter to Lean And Green), Supply Chain Ma nagement, Quality Management etc. In this report, we look at these concepts in some detail to demonstrate how they can help Apple meet its commitments to its stakeholders and meet the need for Corporate Social Responsibility. 2.0 Background Apple Inc. (Apple) is a multinational consumer electronic corporation headquartered in Cupertino, California in America established in 1977. The company designs, manufactures, and sells hardware and software products for computers, entertainment, and portable music systems. Some of its best-known products include the iPod, the iPhone, its desktop and the MacBook Air line of laptops. Vital backup through software for computers and its iTunes virtual music store form important parts of its operations (google.com). Since its inception, the company did moderately well as a number of CEOs changed between 1977 and 1997 when Steve Jobs, the founder of the company, returned to take charge of the company. Steve has remained the CEO since then, except for short periods in 2004 and 2009 when Tim Cook charge during his absence on medical grounds. Since 1997, the company has grown phenomenally and presently employs 35,000 personnel and recorded revenue of $42.91 billion for the year ended September 26, 2009 (finance.yahoo.com). Young and Simon (2005) call Steves return and the growth of Apple following his return the greatest second act in the history of business in the subtitle of their book. Its stock prices dropped to a low of $82.33 on January 12, 2009 from the previous high of $193.91 on December 17, 2007 mostly in response to the economic turndown that affected all companies. Since then, the stock has risen steadily and traded at $226.60 on March 8, 2010 (ibid). Apple has established a unique image for itself through its characteristic advertising and the design of its products. The Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the world in 2009 (Colvin, 2009). Again, in 2010, Fortune named Apple as the most admired company in the world (money.cnn.com [b]), based on a survey among industry leaders using nine criteria. Importantly, from the viewpoint of this report, Apple did not figure in the top ten companies on counts of: Use of Assets, Social Responsibility, Financial Soundness, Long Term Investment, and Global Competitiveness It rated No.1 and No. 4 on Innovation and Product quality respectively. The same report records that Apple have so far sold 250 million iPods, 43 million iPhones, and 32 million iPod Touch, and introduced the game changing iPad portable computer. In 2006, the Mail on Sunday carried a report that alleged Apples contract manufacturers in China, Foxcom and Inventec, were using sweatshop conditions for the production of the iPod (mailonsunday.com); The Washington Post followed washingtonpost.com [a]). Apple took immediate action to investigate and correct the situation (washingtonpost.com [b]). 3.0 Theories of Operations Management In the emerging scenario for manufacturing enterprises, three trends evident are the deployment of technology and effort towards lean and green manufacturing, quality management (TQM) and the impact of globalisation on the thought processes of business. In the following passages, we draw on existing research to discuss the points of convergence and the conflicts between different approaches to operations management. 3.1 TQM and Lean Pettersen (2009) says that it is very difficult to find a definition of lean despite this being a popular management concept. Some authors have attempted to define the concept while others have questioned whether it is indeed possible to understand the meaning of lean management through a narrow and restrictive definition (ibid). This researcher (Pettersen, 2009) carried out detailed investigation of lean and its closest relative TQM that threw up a number of observations that help us understand the concept of lean and TQM. The most important observation is that the two groups [,] human relations management and supply chain management are not definable characteristics of lean they are important (although not vital) parts of the lean concept (ibid: 132). On the other hand, TQM sees employees as components in the production process that cannot be trusted to produce good quality and focuses on removing possibilities of human error from the system. In addition, this author finds diverge nce in the general opinion that lean implies waste reduction, and says that lean aims at two different types of goals; those that are internally focussed, and those that look outward. While internally focused initiatives may look at cost reduction the externally focused may seek a goal of higher customer satisfaction. In addition, Pettersen (2009) finds divergence in the opinion that lean is a set of practical waste-reduction tools compared to others who believe lean is a philosophical approach to operations management. In his discussion of the similarities and differences between lean and TQM Pettersen (2009) points out that in lean quality is a secondary consideration and decreasing cost through waste reduction is an important concept to lean with some research saying that waste reduction adds to customer value. Waste reduction is a significant aspect of TQM, but under the banner of poor-quality-costs (ibid: 134). Perspectives of the two systems also differ. TQM focuses on the int ernal structure of the organisation while lean sees the need to address the entire supply chain where the internal organisation is one part of a value-creating stream. Another major point of departure between TQM and lean is that TQM strongly emphasises investigation of customer requirements while lean does not emphasise this as strongly. However, there appears to be convergence in literature that lean manufacturing implies a constant focus on reducing waste of all types, i.e. waste of materials, time, equipment, space, inventories, and human effort across the entire supply chain (Corbett Klassen, 2006). This focus leads to management of operations in such a way that helps improve quality, reduce costs, and improved service to customers located all over the globe. Pettersen (2009) also points to the many similarities in the two systems of TQM and lean. Both see quality as the responsibility of senior management and focus on removing the human factor to reduce errors. This requires management to concentrate on analysing and improving processes and training people to achieve better quality and cost reduction. Both also focus on continuous improvement through learning with a small difference, TQM looks to stimulate creativity and learning for the individual and quality a result of individual efforts while lean emphasises standardisation of work and collective learning. Both TQM and lean see the importance of supplier and internal worker team participation through long-term partnerships. 3.2 Globalisation, Green and Supply Chain Management Globalisation, provided impetus by the information technology revolution and the lowering of trade and other barriers by nation states, has witnessed increased and free movement of capital and labour across national boundaries. For manufacturing operations, this has meant offshoring of production, inventories, and suppliers as firms look to find customers across the world and to benefit from the differences in economies, infrastructures, and the regulatory mechanisms that exist in different countries and regions (Manuj Mentzer, 2008). These authors state that firms have restructured their supply chains to operate on a global basis to take advantage of the international product, factor, and capital markets (Manuj Mentzer, 2008: 133). Therefore, we can see globalisation as a strong influence on revenue generation by enabling entry into new markets and finding vendors who can supply goods of the same quality at cheaper prices and improved logistics for existing markets. Continuing tre nds since the last few years have seen companies shift their entire manufacturing lines to regions that offer competitive facilities to reduce manufacturing costs. These processes come with some serious downsides also as evident from the complexity of management of a supply chain that extends across several countries that have different laws and regulations, time zones, and cultures. In their drive to outsource production many companies, including Apple, find themselves accused of adopting work and labour practices completely unacceptable to western sensibilities but which are okay in those countries. In this last statement, we hasten to add, there is a fallacy in that it is not the acceptability of sweatshops in the host countries of the subsidiaries but more a question of poor monitoring and governance. An added dimension is the increasing stakeholder pressure to ensure sustainability of operations through restraints on the use of non-renewable natural resources, and controlling pollution and emissions that lead to climate change (Sarkis, 2001; Kovacs, 2008). This pressure to go green requires firms to work with their suppliers and customers to change production processes and promote recycling. Within the organisation, firm now need to analyse their operations and processes, and assume extended stewardship through the entire life cycle of their products to diminish impact on the natural environment through changes that reflect a positive attitude toward corporate social responsibility (Corbett Klassen, 2006). The difficulty remains on how to measure the environmental impact of the operations of a firm as no metrics, except for the ISO 14000 standard. This standard sets out the procedures for identifying environmental aspects of site operations, safe handling and disposal procedures for hazardous materials and waste, and compliance with relevant environmental legislation (Corbett Kirsch, 2001), but does little to provide a metric for measuring the environmental footprint of a multinational and multi-location firm. Where companies deploy outsourcing as a strategy they may face resistance from suppliers reluctant to adopt green practices as they see these as time consuming and expensive (Larson Greenwood, 2004) and requiring high upfront investment for changing manufacturing technologies on which the return on investment is low (Rothenberg et al, 2001). In implementing greener manufacturing firms need to look beyond mere cost efficiencies because such initiatives deliver benefits difficult to quantify into money earned, but are substantial nevertheless (Larson Greenwood, 2004). Friedman (2008) points to the example of Wal-Mart who found that their lean and green initiatives improved financial performance and earned them respect from customers. This respect translates to customer preference to buy from environmentally responsible firms and pay a price premium, which can finally influence the bottom line positively. However, having considered that going green holds a number of potential benefits for the firm; it is understandable that global suppliers, not into retailing, may not find these as plausible reasons to make investments for converting to a greener manufacturing technology. Gattiker et al (2008: 28) say that [. . .] it is difficult to ask suppliers to engage in environmental practices when the buying organization lacks (or is perceived to lack) environmental commitment and concrete practices. Thus, buyers may need to get their own house in order before requiring the same of suppliers, or vice versa. In the considerations that we have discussed above, one can see numerous conflicts that may arise. For example, lean manufacturing requires movement of materials within the supply chain based on demand. Earlier concepts of safety stocks, bulk purchases to avail discounts, and inventory holding have become passÃ © as firms focus on Just-in-time (JIT) inventory management. However, this requires purchase, production, packaging, and transport of ever reducing batches of materials that can adversely affect the green approach. Christopher and Lee (2004) discuss this conflict at length to conclude that, in the context of global supply chains, lean manufacturing results in longer lead times and more inventories that contradicts lean management principles. In this, they extend the findings of an earlier research by Levy (1995) that concluded that globalisation of the supply chain results in higher levels of pollution because of the longer transport routes and smaller batches. Rothenberg et al. (2001), in their investigation of the automobile industry, also point to the fact that implementation of lean processes, waste reduction measures do not add to environmental performance or pollution reduction, and that the relation is negative. This contradiction requires the firm to rethink its approach to overcome the negatives of JIT operations and find innovative solutions that may involve re-useable packaging and reduced container sizes and product mix to decrease package volume. It is difficult to identify such strategies for global supply chains. 4.0 Operations Management Theories and Apple Inc How Apple manages its global supply chains is not readily discernible from company literature and research documents. The only mention found is on page 16 of the Industrial Engineer magazine that quotes Mike Janes talking of Tim Cook the fill-in chief executive of Apple in the absence of Steve Jobs away on medical leave. Mike says, Supply chain management, which seems so incredibly unsexy, is very sexy when you look at your bank account and you have managed the product transitions perfectly. Thats the thing that Tim is absolutely a master at. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Tim is an amazing, brilliant mind when it comes to operational excellence and is really a master of execution Tim Cook is right at the top of the list. Apple enjoys a unique position in the market in that it does not look to measure and investigate customer requirements but looks to create customer needs by offering innovative and feature-rich products, which at first sight the customer do not require but soon become a need through use of the product. Another issue that most research in the area of operations management seen in the light of globalisation and environmental pressures misses is the need to think local while going global. The reducing quantities of available natural resources, especially oil, and the disagreement on use of nuclear energy, the only viable alternative and increasing pressure on issues related to climate change require companies to rethink their strategies. Apple, in its manufacturing processes emitted 3.87 million tonnes of greenhouse gases in 2010, added to this is the 5.40 million tonnes that the use of their products by their customers added to the burden. These together represent 91% of the total emissions of pollutants for which Apple is responsible (apple.com[a]). While Apple, in various statements on its website, says that they are taking proactive action on these issues and are industry leaders in this respect, we believe Apple has to keep an eye on the future and use its strengths of innovation and agile management to initiate action that will help it and the industry. Steve Jobs says that Apple is far ahead of competitors in these areas and by 2010 Apple will be recycling about 28% of its product in America compared to Dell or HP who achieve about 10%. A reason behind this, Steve explains, is the use of high quality materials that recyclers look for (apple.com[b]). Apple has taken a number of actions on its own and in compliance with government regulations to mitigate its impact on the environment. Some of the salient actions are the phasing out of lead batteries in 1991, stoppage of use of CFCs in manufacturing, and implementation of the ISO 14000 quality standards in 1996 (apple.com[e]). In 2000, all its manufacturing sites were ISO 14001 certified (calrecycle.ca.gov). 5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations Morrison (2010) uses an analysis of the success factors at Apple to recommend a set of four mantras that other companies could emulate. The first is that one needs to avoid following the herd, a strategy Apple adopted in avoiding the building of a miniature laptop and instead came out with the ultra-thin Air, a product in line with the Apple image. Next, he says is that a company should not back out from fights it can win, a strategy Apple displayed when it pulled NBCs television programs from the iTunes Store in 2007. NBC backed off within days and now other media companies hesitate to face Apple on pricing. Third, says Morrison is to flatten hierarchies within the organisation, as deep vertical structures tend to dither when it is time to act. Finally, and most relevantly to the context to quality management, Apple has never looked at market research or to emulate its competitors but goes by its own feel to create products like the iPod and the iPhone, which create their own market . While several companies have adopted some of these strategies, none of them has used all four together. The result is the spate of innovative products that make Apple the most valued company in the world. Morrison says Apples culture has codified a habit that is especially valuable for firms that make physical things: Stop, step back from your product, and take a closer look. Without worrying about how much work youve already put into it, is it really as good as it could be? Apple asks that question constantly. Hallgren and Olhager (2009) find that in intensely competitive markets, the firm has the option of choosing to distinguish itself on price or on product differentiation, and the choice of operations management must align with the chosen strategy. Lean management is good where the firms aims at cost leadership where processes are repetitive, require adherence to predetermined schedules, a steady flow through the production process. Conversely, where high customisation, changing variety of products, and agility to introduce new products is the determinant of competitive strategy, the firm should choose agile manufacturing. Examining the internal and external factors these researchers (ibid) use a comprehensive review of literature that lean and agile manufacturing differ in the results, one helps cost leadership and the other can significantly raise costs to obtain agility. Examining the case of Apple, it is evident that the correct strategy must consist of agile manufacturing. However , we do not agree with Hallgren and Olhager (2009) that lean and agile are mutually exclusive strategies. In this, we find support in the earlier work of Katayama and Bennett (1999) who proposed that a combination of lean and agile is mandatory for long-term competitiveness. These writers see the need for a firm to think lean when addressing resources and agile when looking to build capabilities to meet customer requirements. We recommend this strategy to Apple. Chen et al (2009) discuss lean concepts and point to potential pitfalls that an overzealous implementation can cause. They emphasise that lean management aims to eliminate waste, effectively manage personnel, distribute design among entities that are best at each stage, work with the supply chain, manage customers, and wisely manage the organizations finances. Their (ibid) paper draws attention to the fact that in addressing elimination of waste the firm may risk elimination of creative time that is so essential for innovation. Focussing on short-term value creation through cost reductions may threaten competitive ability that can only come through radical and disruptive innovations. Similarly, when a company focuses on building a lean supply chain they risk disruptions of the processes that late or faulty shipments and failure of any of the links in the supply chain (Chen et al, 2009).In these warnings, we see echoes of the very strengths that Apple relies on to lead competition. Using the recommendations of Chen et al (2009), we can see that in order to derive maximum benefit from lean operations Apple needs to maintain a high flexibility and agility in its design and manufacturing capabilities linked to the innovative spirit exemplified in its motto Think Different. However, this does not imply that Apple has no use of the concept of lean; it is through careful and moderate application of its principles that the company can build strength to meet the stress of economic and political disruptions, and most vitally meet the growing competition brought about by rapid globalisation. Word Count: 3483
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Irish Psyche as Portrayed through Miranda in Jennifer Johnston's FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary In her novel FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary, Jennifer Johnston reflects on the Irish psyche and gives an insight into some of the factors that appear to create such a unique culture. This aspect of the novel is explored particularly through the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist, Miranda. She acts like a symbol, the embodiment of the typical Irish person. MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics, attitudes and values are shaped by the influences of her country, therefore reflecting possibilities that typically set the Irish people apart. These characteristics include a symbolic and surreal outlook on life, a love of poetry and music, the importance placed on memories, a sense of humour, the way they love and an inability to accept happiness as reality. Ireland is a spectacular island whipped by harsh weather, steeped in history and torn by wars that have raged for centuries and it is these aspects that contribute to the Irish psyche. Great Irish writers throughout history, such as Yeats and Joyce, have written about these influences in Ireland and the impact that they have on its people. Johnston equally explores similar concepts in FoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ Sanctuary. It is a powerful story, MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s story, showing how the turmoil in Ireland in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life and changes it irrevocably. JohnstonÃ¢â¬â¢s delicate mixture of emotion and caustic observations provide a unique analysis of the Irish psyche. Furthermore, she explores the concept that many of the characteristics that are developed are fundamentally self-destructive. Miranda tries not to be affected by IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict and there are a number of ways in which she tries to escape. However, ultimately this only ends in h... ...trayed by Johnston. However, FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary, not only serves as an exploration of the unique characteristics of the Irish people, it also serves as an explanation. It is an explanation, offering an insight into why certain traits are unique to the Irish psyche, what the traits could be attributed to and how they ultimately lead to self-destruction. Jennifer JohnstonÃ¢â¬â¢s careful and powerful depiction of Ireland at the brink of war, is like a magnifying glass and when examined, it essentially reveals a unique portrayal of the Irish psyche. The Student May Wish to begin the essay with one or more of the quotes below: Out of Ireland we have come. Great Hatred, little room, maimed us at the start..... W.B. YEATS, 1931 The IrishmanÃ¢â¬â¢s house is his coffin. J.A. JOYCE, 1922 Work Cited Johnston, Jennifer. FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary London: Hamish Hamilton 1987 Miranda in Jennifer Johnston's FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary Essay -- Jennifer John The Irish Psyche as Portrayed through Miranda in Jennifer Johnston's FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary In her novel FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary, Jennifer Johnston reflects on the Irish psyche and gives an insight into some of the factors that appear to create such a unique culture. This aspect of the novel is explored particularly through the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist, Miranda. She acts like a symbol, the embodiment of the typical Irish person. MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics, attitudes and values are shaped by the influences of her country, therefore reflecting possibilities that typically set the Irish people apart. These characteristics include a symbolic and surreal outlook on life, a love of poetry and music, the importance placed on memories, a sense of humour, the way they love and an inability to accept happiness as reality. Ireland is a spectacular island whipped by harsh weather, steeped in history and torn by wars that have raged for centuries and it is these aspects that contribute to the Irish psyche. Great Irish writers throughout history, such as Yeats and Joyce, have written about these influences in Ireland and the impact that they have on its people. Johnston equally explores similar concepts in FoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ Sanctuary. It is a powerful story, MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s story, showing how the turmoil in Ireland in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life and changes it irrevocably. JohnstonÃ¢â¬â¢s delicate mixture of emotion and caustic observations provide a unique analysis of the Irish psyche. Furthermore, she explores the concept that many of the characteristics that are developed are fundamentally self-destructive. Miranda tries not to be affected by IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict and there are a number of ways in which she tries to escape. However, ultimately this only ends in h... ...trayed by Johnston. However, FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary, not only serves as an exploration of the unique characteristics of the Irish people, it also serves as an explanation. It is an explanation, offering an insight into why certain traits are unique to the Irish psyche, what the traits could be attributed to and how they ultimately lead to self-destruction. Jennifer JohnstonÃ¢â¬â¢s careful and powerful depiction of Ireland at the brink of war, is like a magnifying glass and when examined, it essentially reveals a unique portrayal of the Irish psyche. The Student May Wish to begin the essay with one or more of the quotes below: Out of Ireland we have come. Great Hatred, little room, maimed us at the start..... W.B. YEATS, 1931 The IrishmanÃ¢â¬â¢s house is his coffin. J.A. JOYCE, 1922 Work Cited Johnston, Jennifer. FoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanctuary London: Hamish Hamilton 1987
Friday, July 19, 2019
In the beginning of Argentina, we recall two major tribes; the Diaguita and the Gaurani who constituted the agricultural origins. During the 1500’s, Spain discovered Argentina, and quickly claimed it for its own. Spain reigned until the 1800’s when it was at war with Britain. In 1816 Argentina declared independence from Spain. After WWII there was a struggle for leadership of Argentina, eventually Juan Peron, a former dictator, was elected President. Peron represented himself as a leader for the common people, however his administration embezzled funds stole from the workers. With the help of his wife, Eva Peron, who became a spiritual symbol for the nation, he reigned over Argentina until his after her death and his government was overthrown by a military coup in 1955. He spent 18 years in exile, however, PerÃ ³n retained his labor support and influence in Argentine politics. He was finally allowed to return to Argentina in 1973 and was again elected president, with his third wife as vice president. He died in office on July 1, 1974. Democratic elections finally arrived in 1983, but the political environment is still shaky. Currently Argentina has a republican government that is very influenced by western nations. It is broken into 23 separate provinces and consists of three branches; judicial, legislative, and executive. President Carlos Saul Menem has been in office since 8 July 1989 and Vice President Carlos Ruckauf has been in office since 8 July 1995 although they also have 4 year terms. In Argentina the president is both the chief of state and head of government. Similar to many countries, Argentina is still trying to find a stable government. Argentina has a steady economy now, although when the republic began, Argentina was in heavy debt. Through the mass exports of oil, feed, and steel with major industries like food processing and agribusiness, they have a healthy, thriving system. Argentina‘s major trading partners consist of countries such as Brazil, the US, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, and France. Argentina is a relatively rich country; it has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of roughly US$283 billion, with about $6800 GDP per head. Argentina is 18th in world GDP ranking. Argentina is a wealthy country. There are many different types of people living in Argentina; 85% of European descent, 15% mestizo, with Indian and other minorities. Their religion is not as varied, 93% are Roman Catholic, 2.5% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 1. A Background Of Argentina :: essays research papers In the beginning of Argentina, we recall two major tribes; the Diaguita and the Gaurani who constituted the agricultural origins. During the 1500’s, Spain discovered Argentina, and quickly claimed it for its own. Spain reigned until the 1800’s when it was at war with Britain. In 1816 Argentina declared independence from Spain. After WWII there was a struggle for leadership of Argentina, eventually Juan Peron, a former dictator, was elected President. Peron represented himself as a leader for the common people, however his administration embezzled funds stole from the workers. With the help of his wife, Eva Peron, who became a spiritual symbol for the nation, he reigned over Argentina until his after her death and his government was overthrown by a military coup in 1955. He spent 18 years in exile, however, PerÃ ³n retained his labor support and influence in Argentine politics. He was finally allowed to return to Argentina in 1973 and was again elected president, with his third wife as vice president. He died in office on July 1, 1974. Democratic elections finally arrived in 1983, but the political environment is still shaky. Currently Argentina has a republican government that is very influenced by western nations. It is broken into 23 separate provinces and consists of three branches; judicial, legislative, and executive. President Carlos Saul Menem has been in office since 8 July 1989 and Vice President Carlos Ruckauf has been in office since 8 July 1995 although they also have 4 year terms. In Argentina the president is both the chief of state and head of government. Similar to many countries, Argentina is still trying to find a stable government. Argentina has a steady economy now, although when the republic began, Argentina was in heavy debt. Through the mass exports of oil, feed, and steel with major industries like food processing and agribusiness, they have a healthy, thriving system. Argentina‘s major trading partners consist of countries such as Brazil, the US, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, and France. Argentina is a relatively rich country; it has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of roughly US$283 billion, with about $6800 GDP per head. Argentina is 18th in world GDP ranking. Argentina is a wealthy country. There are many different types of people living in Argentina; 85% of European descent, 15% mestizo, with Indian and other minorities. Their religion is not as varied, 93% are Roman Catholic, 2.5% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 1.
Hamlet and King Lear:Ã MadnessÃ - Ophelia in Hamlet and Edgar in King LearÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In both Hamlet and King Lear, Shakespeare incorporates a theme of madness with two characters: one truly mad, and one only acting mad to serve a motive. The madness of Hamlet is frequently disputed. This paper argues that the contrapuntal character in each play, namely Ophelia in Hamlet and Edgar in King Lear, acts as a balancing argument to the other character's madness or sanity. King Lear's more decisive distinction between Lear's frailty of mind and Edgar's contrived madness works to better define the relationship between Ophelia's breakdown and Hamlet's "north-north-west" brand of insanity. Both plays offer a character on each side of sanity, but in Hamlet the distinction is not as clear as it is in King Lear. Using the more explicit relationship in King Lear, one finds a better understanding of the relationship in Hamlet. Ã Ã Ã Ã While Shakespeare does not directly pit Ophelia's insanity (or breakdown) against Hamlet's madness, there is instead a clear definitiveness in Ophelia's condition and a clear uncertainty in Hamlet's madness.Ã Obviously, Hamlet's character offers more evidence, while Ophelia's breakdown is quick, but more conclusive in its precision. Shakespeare offers clear evidence pointing to Hamlet's sanity beginning with the first scene of the play. Hamlet begins with guards whose main importance in the play is to give credibility to the ghost. If Hamlet were to see his father's ghost in private, the argument for his madness would greatly improve. Yet, not one, but three men together witness the ghost before even thinking to notify Hamlet. As Horatio says, being the only of the guards to play a significant role in the rest of the play, "Before my God, I might not this believe / Without the sensible and true avouch / Of mine own eyes. (I.i.56-8)" Horatio, who appears frequently throughout the play, acts as an unquestionably sane alibi to Hamlet again when framing the King with his reaction to the play.Ã That Hamlet speaks to the ghost alone detracts somewhat from its credibility, but all the men are witness to the ghost demanding they speak alone. Horatio offers an insightful warning: What if it tempts you toward the flood, my lord, Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff That beetles o'er his base into the sea, And there assume some other horrible form Which might deprive your sovereignty of reason, And draw you into madness?